cDNA Arrays and Immunohistochemistry Identification of CD10/CALLA Expression in Hepatocellular Carcinoma

Department of Pathology, University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, Texas 77555, USA.
American Journal Of Pathology (Impact Factor: 4.6). 11/2001; DOI: 10.1016/S0002-9440(10)62528-X
Source: PubMed Central

ABSTRACT The histological diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) can be complicated by difficulty in differentiation from cholangiocarcinoma and metastatic carcinoma. Immunohistochemical stains currently in use are suboptimal in terms of specificity and sensitivity. Using cDNA array analysis for differential gene expression, we demonstrated a significant increase in mRNA expression level of CD10/CALLA, a type 2 cell-surface metalloproteinase, in HCC, which was subsequently confirmed by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and Western blotting analysis. To test the possibility of using CD10/CALLA as a diagnostic marker for HCC, various intrahepatic tumors were studied immunohistochemically using a monoclonal antibody for CD10. A characteristic canalicular-staining pattern was observed in normal hepatocytes and at the apical surface of bile duct epithelial cells. The canalicular expression of CD10 was identified in 9 of 15 HCCs examined (60%), whereas 10 cholangiocarcinomas and 8 of 9 metastatic carcinomas lacked this staining. In three of the six HCCs negative for CD10, the surrounding nonneoplastic liver tissue was also negative, suggesting fixation-associated loss of immunoreactivity. Six HCCs had stronger CD10 staining in tumor cells when compared to the surrounding nonneoplastic tissue. Three cases of benign bile duct adenomas also expressed CD10 at the luminal aspect. One of the MCs showed a diffuse, cytoplasmic staining for CD10, a pattern readily distinguishable from that of HCC. A panel of other immunohistochemical markers were also studied for comparison, including polyclonal anti-carcinoembryonic antigen, cytokeratin (CK) 7, CK20, and α-fetoprotein. Our results demonstrate that cDNA arrays can be effectively used to identify new diagnostic markers, and that CD10 is a reliable marker for identifying HCC, particularly when used in conjunction with a panel of immunohistochemical markers (polyclonal anti-carcinoembryonic antigen, CK7, CK20, and α-fetoprotein) and in the distinction from cholangiocarcinoma.

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