Social Support May Protect Against Development of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder: Findings From the Heart and Soul Study
ABSTRACT Abstract Purpose . No prospective studies have examined the association of poor social support and development of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in patients with chronic illness. This study addresses this knowledge gap. Design . This prospective study examines the relationship of social support to the subsequent development of PTSD during a 5-year period. Setting . San Francisco Veterans Affairs Medical Center. Subjects . A total of 579 participants with cardiovascular disease did not have PTSD at baseline and returned for the 5-year follow-up examination. Measures . PTSD measured by Computerized Diagnostic Interview Schedule for DSM-IV. Social support measured by Interpersonal Support Evaluation List (ISEL). Analysis . Unconditional ordered logistic regression analyses were performed to yield the odds ratio of developing PTSD for a one-standard-deviation change in ISEL score. Results . Of 579 participants who did not have PTSD at baseline, approximately 6.4% (n = 37) developed PTSD. Higher baseline perceived social support was strongly protective against development of PTSD (OR = .60, p = .001). Results remained significant after adjustment for age, sex, race, income, and depression (OR = .69, p = .04). Of social support types examined, the "tangible" and "belonging" domains were most strongly associated with future PTSD status. Conclusion . Social support may impact development of PTSD. Interventions that optimize social support may be part of a PTSD prevention program designed to help individuals at risk of developing PTSD.
SourceAvailable from: Jeffrey Kreutzer[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: 1) To determine the most frequent needs in a group of family caregivers of individuals with spinal cord injury in Neiva Colombia; 2) to describe caregivers' psychosocial functioning; and 3) to examine the relationship between caregiver needs and caregiver psychosocial functioning. Cross-sectional. 37 caregivers completed a caregiver needs questionnaire composed of 27 questions (1-5 scale) and 9 sub-scales (emotional, information, economic, community, and household support, respite, physical health, sleep, and psychological health). The Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) was used to measure caregiver depression, the Zarit Burden Interview (ZBI) measured stress, the Interpersonal Support Evaluation List Short Version (ISEL-12) measured social support, and the Satisfaction With Life Scale (SWLS) was used to assess satisfaction with life. Information, economic, emotional, community support, and respite needs were most frequently reported among this group of Colombian caregivers. Forty-three percent of the family caregivers reported some level of depression, 68% reported being overwhelmed by their caretaking responsibilities, and 43% reported dissatisfaction with their lives. Information, emotional, economic, physical, sleep, and psychological needs were positively correlated with depression and burden. Those with more household, physical, sleep, economic, and psychological needs had less satisfaction with life and social support. Caregivers with more community and respite needs had less social support, while those with more emotional needs had less satisfaction with life. Caregivers with more respite needs had more burden and those with more household needs had more depression. Approximately half of the sample reports some level of burden, depression, or being dissatisfied with life. Psychosocial functioning was related to various family needs. Further longitudinal research is needed to determine whether caregivers with more needs report worse psychosocial functioning or if those with worse psychosocial functioning report more needs.Neurorehabilitation 01/2010; 27(1):83-93. DOI:10.3233/NRE-2010-0583 · 1.74 Impact Factor
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Research suggests that posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) may be associated with later medical morbidity. To assess this, we examined all-cause and cause-specific mortality among a national random sample of U.S. Army veterans with and without PTSD after military service. We used Cox proportional hazards regressions to examine the causes of death among 15,288 male U.S. Army veterans 16 years after completion of a telephone survey, approximately 30 years after their military service. These men were included in a national random sample of veterans from the Vietnam War Era. Our analyses adjusted for race, Army volunteer status, Army entry age, Army discharge status, Army illicit drug abuse, intelligence, age, and, additionally -- for cancer mortality -- pack-years of cigarette smoking. Our findings indicated that adjusted postwar mortality for all-cause, cardiovascular, cancer, and external causes of death (including motor vehicle accidents, accidental poisonings, suicides, homicides, injuries of undetermined intent) was associated with PTSD among Vietnam Theater veterans (N = 7,924), with hazards ratios (HRs) of 2.2 (p < 0.001), 1.7 (p = 0.034), 1.9 (p = 0.018), and 2.3 (p = 0.001), respectively. For Vietnam Era veterans with no Vietnam service (N = 7,364), PTSD was associated with all-cause mortality (HR = 2.0, p = 0.001). PTSD-positive era veterans also appeared to have an increase in external-cause mortality as well (HR = 2.2, p = 0.073). Our study suggests that Vietnam veterans with PTSD may be at increased risk of death from multiple causes. The reasons for this increased mortality are unclear but may be related to biological, psychological, or behavioral factors associated with PTSD and warrant further investigation.Annals of Epidemiology 04/2006; 16(4):248-56. DOI:10.1016/j.annepidem.2005.03.009 · 2.15 Impact Factor
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: To evaluate potentially modifiable deployment characteristics-- predeployment preparedness, unit support during deployment, and postdeployment support-that may be associated with deployment-related posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). We recruited a sample of 2616 Ohio Army National Guard (OHARNG) soldiers and conducted structured interviews to assess traumatic event exposure and PTSD related to the soldiers' most recent deployment, consistent with DSM-IV criteria. We assessed preparedness, unit support, and postdeployment support by using multimeasure scales adapted from the Deployment Risk and Resilience Survey. The prevalence of deployment-related PTSD was 9.6%. In adjusted logistic models, high levels of all three deployment characteristics (compared with low) were independently associated with lower odds of PTSD. When we evaluated the influence of combinations of deployment characteristics on the development of PTSD, we found that postdeployment support was an essential factor in the prevention of PTSD. Results show that factors throughout the life course of deployment-in particular, postdeployment support-may influence the development of PTSD. These results suggest that the development of suitable postdeployment support opportunities may be centrally important in mitigating the psychological consequences of war.Annals of epidemiology 02/2012; 22(2):71-8. DOI:10.1016/j.annepidem.2011.11.003 · 2.15 Impact Factor