Verifying influenza and pneumococcal immunization status of children in 2009-2010 from primary care practice records and from the North Carolina Immunization Registry.
ABSTRACT The North Carolina Immunization Registry (NCIR) has been available since 2004. We sought to measure its utilization among practices that provide primary care for children who are enrolled in a prospective influenza surveillance study.
This study included children aged 0.5-17 years who presented with fever or acute respiratory symptoms to an emergency department or inpatient setting in Winston-Salem, North Carolina, from September 1, 2009, through May 19, 2010. Study team members verified influenza and pneumococcal immunization status by requesting records from each child's primary care practice and by independently reviewing the NCIR. We assessed agreement of nonregistry immunization medical records with NCIR data using the kappa statistic.
Fifty-six practices confirmed the immunization status of 292 study-enrolled children. For most children (238/292, 82%), practices verified the child's immunizations by providing a copy of the NCIR record. For 54 children whose practices verified their immunizations by providing practice records alone, agreement with the NCIR by the kappa statistic was 0.6-0.7 for seasonal and monovalent H1N1 influenza vaccines and 0.8-0.9 for pneumococcal conjugate and polysaccharide vaccines. A total of 221 (98%) of 226 enrolled children younger than 6 years of age had 2 or more immunizations documented in the NCIR.
NCIR usage may vary in other regions of North Carolina.
More than 95% of children younger than 6 years of age had 2 or more immunizations documented in the NCIR; thus, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention 2010 goal for immunization information systems was met in this population. We found substantial agreement between practice records and the NCIR for influenza and pneumococcal immunizations in children.
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ABSTRACT: This paper presents a general statistical methodology for the analysis of multivariate categorical data arising from observer reliability studies. The procedure essentially involves the construction of functions of the observed proportions which are directed at the extent to which the observers agree among themselves and the construction of test statistics for hypotheses involving these functions. Tests for interobserver bias are presented in terms of first-order marginal homogeneity and measures of interobserver agreement are developed as generalized kappa-type statistics. These procedures are illustrated with a clinical diagnosis example from the epidemiological literature.Biometrics 04/1977; 33(1):159-74. DOI:10.2307/2529310 · 1.52 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: To determine whether children on fee-for-service Medicaid who switch primary care doctors use less health care and are less up to date with preventive care visits than children who do not switch primary care doctors. Retrospective cohort study using Medicaid claims data. 51,027 children enrolled on Medicaid in Monroe County, New York. 14,187 children enrolled continuously on fee-for-service Medicaid between January 1992 and December 1994. Utilization of primary care, emergency department (ED) services, and specialty care and proportion up to date with preventive care visits according to American Academy of Pediatrics guidelines. During the 2-year study period, 22% of children switched primary care doctors. Compared with children who did not switch primary care doctors, those who switched had more primary care visits (4.7 vs. 3.2 visits/year, P < .01), age-adjusted preventive care visits (1.2 vs. 1.0 visits/year), ED visits (0.72 vs. 0.47 visits/year, P < .01), and specialist visits (0.99 vs. 0.31, P < .01). On multivariate analysis, doctor switching was associated with increased odds of being up to date with preventive care visits (odds ratio [OR] = 1.7; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.3 to 2.1). However, on multivariate analysis stratified by age, the association was significant only for older children (ages 11 to 14). Altogether, 68% of all children and 44% of infants less than 1 year old made the recommended number of preventive care visits during the study period. All groups of children received less preventive care than recommended by the American Academy of Pediatrics. Children who switched primary care doctors had higher utilization of health care, including primary care, ED, and specialty care. Contrary to expectations, they were more likely to be up to date with preventive care visits. The heavy utilization of health services by doctor switchers indicates that this subgroup of children on Medicaid may not be at risk for poor access to health care, but additional research is needed to determine whether the quality of care is related to doctor switching.Journal of Urban Health 09/1999; 76(3):322-34. DOI:10.1007/BF02345671 · 1.94 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to ascertain whether either parental recall or a state immunization registry was as accurate as the medical record in determining immunization status in the emergency department (ED). A convenience sample of children younger than 5 years who presented to the ED between July 2004 and May 2005 were enrolled prospectively. After obtaining informed consent, parents were asked about their child's immunization status. All children then had their immunization data accessed in the Arizona State Immunization Information System. The information obtained from the state registry, as well as the information from the parental interview, was then compared with the information on the medical record obtained from the primary care physician (PCP). Data were analyzed using simple descriptive statistics. A total of 332 children were enrolled in the study. A total of 302 (91%) children enrolled were found in the state database, and 222 (74%) of these had a medical record available for comparison. The database agreed with the PCP record in 130 (59%) cases; parental report agreed with the PCP record in 149 (62%) cases. Although most children can be found in the state immunization registry, it seems to be similar in accuracy to parental recall of immunization status when each is compared with the medical record. This may have been due to either underreporting of immunizations from the community or a delay in updating the state database. At this time, neither parental recall nor the database would accurately determine a child's immunization status during an ED visit.Pediatric emergency care 03/2008; 24(2):71-4. DOI:10.1097/PEC.0b013e318163db4d · 0.92 Impact Factor