Mycobacterium tuberculosis Bacteremia in a Cohort of HIV-Infected Patients Hospitalized with Severe Sepsis in Uganda–High Frequency, Low Clinical Sand Derivation of a Clinical Prediction Score

University of Washington, Department of Medicine, Seattle, Washington, United States of America
PLoS ONE (Impact Factor: 3.23). 08/2013; 8(8):e70305. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0070305
Source: PubMed


When manifested as Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) bacteremia, disseminated MTB infection clinically mimics other serious blood stream infections often hindering early diagnosis and initiation of potentially life-saving anti-tuberculosis therapy. In a cohort of hospitalized HIV-infected Ugandan patients with severe sepsis, we report the frequency, management and outcomes of patients with MTB bacteremia and propose a risk score based on clinical predictors of MTB bacteremia.
We prospectively enrolled adult patients with severe sepsis at two Ugandan hospitals and obtained blood cultures for MTB identification. Multivariable logistic regression modeling was used to determine predictors of MTB bacteremia and to inform the stratification of patients into MTB bacteremia risk categories based on relevant patient characteristics.
Among 368 HIV-infected patients with a syndrome of severe sepsis, eighty-six (23%) had MTB bacteremia. Patients with MTB bacteremia had a significantly lower median CD4 count (17 vs 64 lymphocytes/mm(3), p<0.001) and a higher 30-day mortality (53% vs 32%, p = 0.001) than patients without MTB bacteremia. A minority of patients with MTB bacteremia underwent standard MTB diagnostic testing (24%) or received empiric anti-tuberculosis therapy (15%). Independent factors associated with MTB bacteremia included male sex, increased heart rate, low CD4 count, absence of highly active anti-retroviral therapy, chief complaint of fever, low serum sodium and low hemoglobin. A risk score derived from a model containing these independent predictors had good predictive accuracy [area under the curve = 0.85, 95% CI 0.80-0.89].
Nearly 1 in 4 adult HIV-infected patients hospitalized with severe sepsis in 2 Ugandan hospitals had MTB bacteremia. Among patients in whom MTB was suspected, standard tests for diagnosing pulmonary MTB were inaccurate for correctly classifying patients with or without bloodstream MTB infection. A MTB bacteremia risk score can improve early diagnosis of MTB bacteremia particularly in settings with increased HIV and MTB co-infection.


Available from: Shevin T Jacob
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Hematogenous dissemination of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tb) occurs during both primary and reactivated tuberculosis (TB). Although hematogenous dissemination occurs in non-HIV TB patients, in ∼80% of these patients, TB manifests exclusively as pulmonary disease. In contrast, extrapulmonary, disseminated, and/or miliary TB is seen in 60-70% of HIV-infected TB patients, suggesting that hematogenous dissemination is likely more common in HIV+ patients. To understand M. tb adaptation to the blood environment during bacteremia, we have studied the transcriptome of M. tb replicating in human whole blood. To investigate if M. tb discriminates between the hematogenous environments of immunocompetent and immunodeficient individuals, we compared the M. tb transcriptional profiles during replication in blood from HIV- and HIV+ donors. Our results demonstrate that M. tb survives and replicates in blood from both HIV- and HIV+ donors and enhances its virulence/pathogenic potential in the hematogenous environment. The M. tb blood-specific transcriptome reflects suppression of dormancy, induction of cell-wall remodeling, alteration in mode of iron acquisition, potential evasion of immune surveillance, and enhanced expression of important virulence factors that drive active M. tb infection and dissemination. These changes are accentuated during bacterial replication in blood from HIV+ patients. Furthermore, the expression of ESAT-6, which participates in dissemination of M. tb from the lungs, is upregulated in M. tb growing in blood, especially during growth in blood from HIV+ patients. Preliminary experiments also demonstrate that ESAT-6 promotes HIV replication in U1 cells. These studies provide evidence, for the first time, that during bacteremia, M. tb can adapt to the blood environment by modifying its transcriptome in a manner indicative of an enhanced-virulence phenotype that favors active infection. Additionally, transcriptional modifications in HIV+ blood may further accentuate M. tb virulence and drive both M. tb and HIV infection.
    PLoS ONE 04/2014; 9(4):e94939. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0094939 · 3.23 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: To assess the efficacy of a simple, goal-directed sepsis treatment protocol for reducing mortality in patients with severe sepsis in Zambia.
    Critical Care Medicine 07/2014; 42(11). DOI:10.1097/CCM.0000000000000541 · 6.31 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Background Blood stream tuberculosis (TB), caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) is common among HIV-positive patients, turning rapidly fatal unless detected and treated promptly. Blood culture is currently the standard test for the detection of MTB in whole blood but results take weeks; patients deteriorate markedly and often die before a diagnosis of blood stream TB is made. Rapid molecular tests on whole blood, with potential for same day diagnosis of blood stream TB usually show low sensitivity due to the problem of insufficient MTB DNA template when extraction is performed directly on low blood volumes. This study assessed the influence of blood volume on the sensitivity of a HyBeacon PCR assay-the FluoroType® MTB (Hain Lifescience, Nehren, Germany) on direct detection of MTB in whole blood.Methods Prospective recruitment of HIV-positive patients with clinical suspicion of blood stream TB but not on anti-TB or HIV drug treatment was done. Venous blood samples were collected and DNA extracted using the MolYsis (Molzym, Bremen, Germany) methods; for study A, from duplicate 1 ml (42 patients) and for study B (31 patients) from 9 ml EDTA blood samples. The FluoroType® MTB PCR assay targeting an IS6110 sequence was performed and results compared with blood culture.ResultsThe diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of the FluoroType® MTB PCR in study A was 33% and 97%, respectively. Corresponding values in study B were 71% and 96%, respectively. In both studies, one case each of blood culture-negative blood stream TB was detected with the FluoroType® MTB PCR assay. The median time to positivity of blood culture was 20.1 (range 12¿32) for study A and 19.9 days (range 15¿30) for study B.Conclusion Larger blood volumes (9 ml) improved and gave acceptable sensitivity of direct PCR diagnosis of blood stream TB.
    BMC Infectious Diseases 02/2015; 15(1):48. DOI:10.1186/s12879-015-0785-3 · 2.61 Impact Factor
Show more