Targeting Activated KIT Signaling for Melanoma Therapy

University of California at San Francisco, San Francisco, CA.
Journal of Clinical Oncology (Impact Factor: 17.88). 08/2013; 31(26). DOI: 10.1200/JCO.2013.50.3227
Source: PubMed
Download full-text


Available from: Rosaura Esteve-Puig, Dec 23, 2014
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Converging lines of evidence from varied scientific disciplines suggest that cutaneous melanomas comprise biologically distinct subtypes that arise through multiple causal pathways. Understanding the respective relationships of each subtype with etiologic factors such as UV radiation and constitutional factors is the first necessary step toward developing refined prevention strategies for the specific forms of melanoma. Furthermore, classifying this disease precisely into biologically distinct subtypes is the key to developing mechanism-based treatments, as highlighted by recent discoveries. In this review, we outline the historical developments that underpin our understanding of melanoma heterogeneity, and we do this from the perspectives of clinical presentation, histopathology, epidemiology, molecular genetics, and developmental biology. We integrate the evidence from these separate trajectories to catalog the emerging major categories of melanomas and conclude with important unanswered questions relating to the development of melanoma and its cells of origin.
    Pigment Cell & Melanoma Research 06/2011; 24(5):879-97. DOI:10.1111/j.1755-148X.2011.00880.x · 5.64 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Melanomas on mucosal membranes, acral skin (soles, palms, and nail bed), and skin with chronic sun-induced damage have infrequent mutations in BRAF and NRAS, genes within the mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase pathway commonly mutated in melanomas on intermittently sun-exposed skin. This raises the question of whether other aberrations are occurring in the MAP kinase cascade in the melanoma types with infrequent mutations of BRAF and NRAS. We analyzed array comparative genomic hybridization data from 102 primary melanomas (38 from mucosa, 28 from acral skin, and 18 from skin with and 18 from skin without chronic sun-induced damage) for DNA copy number aberrations specific to melanoma subtypes where mutations in BRAF and NRAS are infrequent. A narrow amplification on 4q12 was found, and candidate genes within it were analyzed. Oncogenic mutations in KIT were found in three of seven tumors with amplifications. Examination of all 102 primary melanomas found mutations and/or copy number increases of KIT in 39% of mucosal, 36% of acral, and 28% of melanomas on chronically sun-damaged skin, but not in any (0%) melanomas on skin without chronic sun damage. Seventy-nine percent of tumors with mutations and 53% of tumors with multiple copies of KIT demonstrated increased KIT protein levels. KIT is an important oncogene in melanoma. Because the majority of the KIT mutations we found in melanoma also occur in imatinib-responsive cancers of other types, imatinib may offer an immediate therapeutic benefit for a significant proportion of the global melanoma burden.
    Journal of Clinical Oncology 10/2006; 24(26):4340-6. DOI:10.1200/JCO.2006.06.2984 · 17.88 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Given the correlation between KIT mutations and immunohistochemical expression of CKIT in acral melanoma, our aim was to confirm the utility of CKIT detection as a screening tool for KIT genotyping in atypical acral nevi and to ascertain the frequency of KIT mutations in the same. Immunohistochemical staining for CKIT was performed and staining criteria were the following: negative = <10%, 1 = 11%-49%, and 2 = >50% of cells. Intensity grading was as follows: negative = 0, weak = 1, moderate = 2, and strong = 3. Genomic amplification was performed on KIT exons commonly mutated in acral melanomas (11, 13, and 17) from atypical acral nevi (23) ranging in severity from mild (9), moderate (10), and severe (4). The control group included acral nevi without atypia (19). For purposes of statistical analyses, cases with 11% or more staining of cells were compared with negative cases and cases with a staining intensity of 1 or higher were compared with the negatives. Immunohistochemical analyses revealed the following: positive staining with an intensity 1 or more in 18 of 22 (82%) of cases with atypia (5 mild; 9 moderate and 4 severe) and in 13 of 17 (76%) nevi without atypia with no statistically significant differences between both groups. Genomic analyses of exon regions revealed no abnormalities in "hotspots" frequently associated with point mutations in acral melanomas. Our findings indicate a lack of correlation between immunohistochemical expression of CKIT and KIT mutations in atypical acral nevi. Atypical acral nevi do not exhibit genetic alterations in KIT associated with acral melanomas.
    The American Journal of dermatopathology 11/2011; 34(1):41-6. DOI:10.1097/DAD.0b013e31821ec0ef · 1.43 Impact Factor