Glycemic control in familial vs. sporadic type 1 diabetes patients over 5 years
ABSTRACT Abstract Background: Studies have shown that familial type 1 diabetes patients (FTID) have less severe metabolic derangement at presentation compared to sporadic patients (ST1D), but data on long-term metabolic control are lacking. Objective/Hypothesis: (1) FT1D will have less severe presentation and better HbA1c over 5 years compared to ST1D; (2) HbA1c in the offspring will correlate with parent HbA1c in parent-offspring group; and (3) HbA1c of the second affected sibling (SP2) will correlate with the first affected sibling (SP1) in sib-pairs. Methods: Cohort of 33 parent-offspring and 19 sib-pairs; controls included 33 sporadic subjects matched by age, sex, ethnicity, puberty, and insulin regimen. Paired t-test and Pearson's correlation were used for statistical analysis. Results: At diagnosis, mean age in FT1D vs. matched ST1D (7.7±4.9 vs. 7.6±4.5 years), mean HbA1c (9.6% vs. 10.7%), HCO3 (21 vs. 18 meq/L), glucose (428 vs. 463 mg/dL) and pH (7.35 vs. 7.36; p=ns) were not different. At 5 years, HbA1c (8.9% vs. 8.8%; p=0.81), clinic visits (12 vs. 12.5, p=0.68) and emergency room visits (0.48 vs. 0.24, p=0.10) were not different. In affected siblings, only HCO3 was different (SP1:18 vs. SP2: 24 meq/L; p<0.01). HbA1c for SP2 correlated positively with SP1 (r=0.67, p<0.01). Offspring HbA1c correlated positively with affected parents (9.3% vs. 8.6%, r=0.57, p=0.18) but was not significant. Conclusion: Metabolic control at diagnosis and at 5 years was similar in FT1D and ST1D. In sib-pairs, the second affected sibling had milder clinical presentation compared to the first affected sibling.
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ABSTRACT: Heterogeneity within insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) has been hypothesized, but few studies have focused on differences which may exist between familial and sporadic IDDM cases. Presenting characteristics for 330 white, newly diagnosed IDDM cases were evaluated. Familial cases were older (10.2 +/- 5.1 years vs 7.9 +/- 4.2 years, P = 0.010) and had, on average, less severe metabolic disturbances at presentation, as demonstrated by lower mean hemoglobin A1 (12.6 +/- 2.4% vs 14.4 +/- 2.6%, P = 0.001) and mean insulin dose at discharge (0.62 +/- 0.35 U/kg/day vs 0.85 +/- 0.29 U/kg/day, P less than 0.001), and higher mean plasma bicarbonate concentrations (19.3 +/- 3.9 mmol/l vs 15.8 +/- 5.9 mmol/l, P = 0.023) and mean plasma C-peptide levels (0.35 +/- 0.36 pmol/ml vs 0.14 +/- 0.15 pmol/ml, P less than 0.001). Further analyses on a subset of IDDM cases (n = 100) indicated that initial differences in metabolic indices observed at diagnosis were no longer apparent at one-year post-diagnosis. These results suggest that the etiology of familial and sporadic IDDM is similar and that the less severe presentation observed at diagnosis in the familial cases may be due to earlier identification of the disease, reflecting increased parental knowledge of diabetic symptoms and/or frequent testing for diabetes.Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice 01/1992; 14(3):183-90. DOI:10.1016/0168-8227(91)90019-A · 2.54 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: It is well known that social family factors are of importance in diabetes care, but it is not clear whether the initial management regimen can buffer these factors. In a prospective, randomized intervention study, 36 children with diabetes mellitus (type I) were followed, the aim being to study if a family psychosocial intervention at diagnosis could improve glycemic control and minimize hospital admissions. The control group was treated initially in a hospital ward, while the study group received problem-based learning and family-therapeutic and social support in an out-hospital training apartment. A number of family social variables were evaluated at the time of diagnosis and 6, 12 and 24 mo later. Family function was assessed using the self-estimated Family Climate Test at these same time-points. HbAlc values and information concerning in- and out-hospital visits to the pediatric clinic were collected for the 5-y period following diagnosis. We found no association between the offered management regimen and glycemic control or rate of readmission. In the study group only, both parents reported a significant improvement of the family climate. An increased risk for poor glycemic control was recorded in children living in one-parent families (p = 0.03) or in families where the father had a low level of education (p = 0.04). Younger age (p = 0.05), a single-parent family (p = 0.05) and poor glycemic control (p = 0.02) were associated with more days of rehospitalization. The rate of divorce in the whole group was at least as high as in the normal population but, surprisingly, maternal dysfunction was associated with lower HbAlc value. The conclusion is that even with an initial management regimen designed to offer a family-individual care regimen based on accurate estimation of the psychological and pedagogical needs, the social family background is a most important factor for the glycemic control and need for readmission.Acta Paediatrica 01/2001; 89(12):1462-8. DOI:10.1111/j.1651-2227.2000.tb02777.x · 1.84 Impact Factor
Article: Epidemiology of Type 1 Diabetes[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: This article describes the epidemiology of type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1D) around the world and across the lifespan. Epidemiologic patterns of T1D by demographic, geographic, biologic, cultural, and other factors in populations are presented to gain insight about the causes, natural history, risks, and complications of T1D. Data from large epidemiologic studies worldwide indicate that the incidence of T1D has been increasing by 2% to 5% worldwide and that the prevalence of T1D is approximately 1 in 300 in the United States by 18 years of age. Research on risk factors for T1D is an active area of research to identify genetic and environmental triggers that could potentially be targeted for intervention. Although significant advances have been made in the clinical care of T1D with resultant improvements in quality of life and clinical outcomes, much more needs to be done to improve care of, and ultimately find a cure for, T1D. Epidemiologic studies have an important ongoing role to investigate the complex causes, clinical care, prevention, and cure of T1D.Endocrinology and metabolism clinics of North America 09/2010; 39(3):481-97. DOI:10.1016/j.ecl.2010.05.011 · 2.86 Impact Factor