Myf5-Positive Satellite Cells Contribute to Pax7-Dependent Long-Term Maintenance of Adult Muscle Stem Cells

Department of Cardiac Development and Remodeling, Max-Planck-Institute for Heart and Lung Research, Ludwigstraße 43, 61231 Bad Nauheim, Germany.
Cell stem cell (Impact Factor: 22.15). 08/2013; 13(6). DOI: 10.1016/j.stem.2013.07.016
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Skeletal muscle contains Pax7-expressing muscle stem or satellite cells, enabling muscle regeneration throughout most of adult life. Here, we demonstrate that induced inactivation of Pax7 in Pax7-expressing cells of adult mice leads to loss of muscle stem cells and reduced heterochromatin condensation in rare surviving satellite cells. Inactivation of Pax7 in Myf5-expressing cells revealed that the majority of adult muscle stem cells originate from myogenic lineages, which express the myogenic regulators Myf5 or MyoD. Likewise, the majority of muscle stem cells are replenished from Myf5-expressing myogenic cells during adult life, and inactivation of Pax7 in Myf5-expressing cells after muscle damage leads to a complete arrest of muscle regeneration. Finally, we demonstrate that a relatively small number of muscle stem cells are sufficient for efficient repair of skeletal muscles. We conclude that Pax7 acts at different levels in a nonhierarchical regulatory network controlling muscle-satellite-cell-mediated muscle regeneration.

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    ABSTRACT: The satellite cells are long regarded as heterogeneous cell population, which is intimately linked to the processes of muscular recovery. The heterogeneous cell population may be classified by specific markers. In spite of the significant amount of variation amongst the satellite cell populations, it seems that their activity is tightly bound to the paired box 7 transcription factor expression, which is, therefore, used as a canonical marker for these cells. Muscular dystrophic diseases, such as Duchenne muscular dystrophy, elicit severe tissue injuries leading those patients to display a very specific pattern of muscular recovery abnormalities. There have been works on the application of precursors cells as a therapeutic alternative for Duchenne muscular dystrophy and initial attempts have proven the cells inefficient; however later endeavours have proposed solutions for the experiments improving significantly the results. The presence of a range of satellite cells populations indicates the existence of specific cells with enhanced capability of muscular recovery in afflicted muscles.
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    ABSTRACT: Two recent studies have reinvigorated the conversation regarding the role of Pax7 in adult satellite. Studies by Gunther et al (Cell Stem Cell 13:590-601, 2013) and Von Maltzhen et al (Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 110:16474-16479) show that Pax7 is critical for adult satellite cell function and their contribution to muscle repair. Previously, Lepper et al (Nature 460:627-631, 2009) demonstrated that Pax7 was dispensable for adult muscle repair. In this commentary I have summarized the results from these studies, focusing on the differences in experimental paradigms that led the authors to different conclusions. I also take this opportunity to discuss the potential limitations and hurdles of Cre-lox technology that are responsible for the discrepant results.
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    ABSTRACT: Muscle stem cells facilitate the long-term regenerative capacity of skeletal muscle. This self-renewing population of satellite cells has only recently been defined through genetic and transplantation experiments. Although muscle stem cells remain in a dormant quiescent state in uninjured muscle, they are poised to activate and produce committed progeny. Unlike committed myogenic progenitor cells, the self-renewal capacity gives muscle stem cells the ability to engraft as satellite cells and capitulate long-term regeneration. Similar to other adult stem cells, understanding the molecular regulation of muscle stem cells has significant implications towards the development of pharmacological or cell-based therapies for muscle disorders. This Cell Science at a Glance article and accompanying poster will review satellite cell characteristics and therapeutic potential, and provide an overview of the muscle stem cell hallmarks: quiescence, self-renewal and commitment.
    Journal of Cell Science 10/2014; DOI:10.1242/jcs.151209 · 5.33 Impact Factor

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