Generation of a Dual-Functioning Antitumor Immune Response in the Peritoneal Cavity.
ABSTRACT Tumor cell metastasis to the peritoneal cavity is observed in patients with tumors of peritoneal organs, particularly colon and ovarian tumors. On release into the peritoneal cavity, tumor cells rapidly attach to the omentum, a tissue consisting of immune aggregates embedded in adipose tissue. Despite their proximity to potential immune effector cells, tumor cells grow aggressively on these immune aggregates. We hypothesized that activation of the immune aggregates would generate a productive antitumor immune response in the peritoneal cavity. We immunized mice i.p. with lethally irradiated cells of the colon adenocarcinoma line Colon38. Immunization resulted in temporary enlargement of immune aggregates, and after challenge with viable Colon38 cells, we did not detect tumor growth on the omentum. When Colon38-immunized mice were challenged with cells from the unrelated breast adenocarcinoma line E0771 or the melanoma line B16, these tumors also did not grow. The nonspecific response was long-lived and not present systemically, highlighting the uniqueness of the peritoneal cavity. Cellular depletions of immune subsets revealed that NK1.1(+) cells were essential in preventing growth of unrelated tumors, whereas NK1.1(+) cells and T cells were essential in preventing Colon38 tumor growth. Collectively, these data demonstrate that the peritoneal cavity has a unique environment capable of eliciting potent specific and nonspecific antitumor immune responses.
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ABSTRACT: Helminth parasites provoke multicellular immune responses in their hosts that can suppress concomitant disease. The gut lumen-dwelling tapeworm Hymenolepis diminuta, unlike other parasites assessed as helminth therapy, causes no host tissue damage while potently suppressing murine colitis. With the goal of harnessing the immunomodulatory capacity of infection with H. diminuta, we assessed the putative generation of anti-colitic regulatory B cells following H. diminuta infection. Splenic CD19(+) B cells isolated from mice infected 7 [HdBc(7(d))] and 14 d (but not 3 d) previously with H. diminuta and transferred to naive mice significantly reduced the severity of dinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (DNBS)-, oxazolone-, and dextran-sodium sulfate-induced colitis. Mechanistic studies with the DNBS model, revealed the anti-colitic HdBc(7(d)) was within the follicular B cell population and its phenotype was not dependent on IL-4 or IL-10. The HdBc(7(d)) were not characterized by increased expression of CD1d, CD5, CD23, or IL-10 production, but did spontaneously, and upon LPS plus anti-CD40 stimulation, produce more TGF-β than CD19(+) B cells from controls. DNBS-induced colitis in RAG1(-/-) mice was inhibited by administration of HdBc(7(d)), indicating a lack of a requirement for T and B cells in the recipient; however, depletion of macrophages in recipient mice abrogated the anti-colitic effect of HdBc(7(d)). Thus, in response to H. diminuta, a putatively unique splenic CD19(+) B cell with a functional immunoregulatory program is generated that promotes the suppression of colitis dominated by TH1, TH2, or TH1-plus-TH2 events, and may do so via the synthesis of TGF-β and the generation of, or cooperation with, a regulatory macrophage. Copyright © 2014 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.
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ABSTRACT: Radiation therapy (RT) continues to be a cornerstone in the treatment for many cancers. Unfortunately, not all individuals respond effectively to RT resulting clinically in two groups consisting of non-responders (progressive disease) and responders (tumor control/cure). The mechanisms that govern the outcome of radiotherapy are poorly understood. Interestingly, a new paradigm has emerged demonstrating that the immune system mediates many of the antitumor effects of RT. Therefore, we hypothesized that the immune response following RT may dictate the efficacy of treatment. To examine this, we developed a tumor model that mirrors this clinically relevant phenomenon in which mice bearing Colon38, a colon adenocarcinoma, were treated locally with 15Gy RT resulting in both non-responders and responders. More importantly, we were able to determine responders from non-responders as early as four days post-RT allowing for the unique opportunity to identify critical events that ultimately determined the effectiveness of therapy. Intratumoral immune cells and IFNγ were increased in responsive tumors and licensed CD8 T cells to exhibit lytic activity against tumor cells, a response that was diminished in tumors refractory to RT. Combinatorial treatment with RT and the immunomodulatory cytokine IL-12 resulted in complete remission of cancer in 100% of cases compared to a cure rate of only 12% with RT alone. Similar data were obtained when IL-12 was delivered by microspheres. Therefore, the efficacy of RT may depend on the strength of the immune response induced after radiotherapy. Additionally, immunotherapy that further stimulates the immune cells may enhance the effectiveness of RT. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.International Journal of Cancer 05/2014; 134(10). DOI:10.1002/ijc.28558 · 5.01 Impact Factor