HIV peripheral neuropathy.
ABSTRACT Peripheral neuropathies are the most common neurological manifestations occurring in HIV-infected individuals. Distal symmetrical sensory neuropathy is the most common form encountered today and is one of the few that are specific to HIV infection or its treatment. The wide variety of other neuropathies is akin to the neuropathies seen in the general population and should be managed accordingly. In the pre-ART era, neuropathies were categorized according to the CD4 count and HIV viral load. In the early stages of HIV infection when CD4 count is high, the inflammatory demyelinating neuropathies predominate and in the late stages with the decline of CD4 count opportunistic infection-related neuropathies prevail. That scenario has changed with the present almost universal use of ART (antiretroviral therapy). Hence, HIV-associated peripheral neuropathies are better classified according to their clinical presentations: distal symmetrical polyneuropathy, acute inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy (AIDP) and chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy (CIDP), mononeuropathies, mononeuropathies multiplex and cranial neuropathies, autonomic neuropathy, lumbosacral polyradiculomyelopathy, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS)-like motor neuropathy. Treated with ART, HIV-infected individuals are living longer and are at a higher risk of metabolic and age-related complications; moreover they are also prone to the potentially neurotoxic effects of ART. There are no epidemiological data regarding the incidence and prevalence of the peripheral neuropathies. In the pre-ART era, most data were from case reports, series of patients, and pooled autopsy data. At that time the histopathological evidence of neuropathies in autopsy series was almost 100%. In large prospective cohorts presently being evaluated, it has been found that 57% of HIV-infected individuals have distal symmetrical sensory neuropathy and 38% have neuropathic pain. It is now clear that distal symmetrical sensory neuropathy is caused predominantly by the ART's neurotoxic effect but may also be caused by the HIV itself. With a sizeable morbidity, the neuropathic pain caused by distal symmetrical sensory neuropathy is very difficult to manage; it is often necessary to change the ART regimen before deciding upon the putative role of HIV infection itself. If the change does not improve the pain, there are few options available; the most common drugs used for neuropathic pain are usually not effective. One is left with cannabis, which cannot be recommended as routine therapy, recombinant human nerve growth factor, which is unavailable, and topical capsaicin with its side-effects. Much has been done to and learned from HIV infection in humans; HIV-infected individuals, treated with ART, are now dying mostly from cardiovascular disease and non-AIDS-related cancers. It hence behooves us to find new approaches to mitigate the residual neurological morbidity that still impacts the quality of life of that population.
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ABSTRACT: Peripheral neuropathy induced by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and antiretroviral therapy is not only difficult to distinguish in clinical practice, but also difficult to relieve the pain symptoms by analgesics because of the severity of the disease at the later stage. Hence, to explore the mechanisms of HIV-related neuropathy and find new therapeutic options are particularly important for relieving neuropathic pain symptoms of the patients. In the present study, primary cultured embryonic rat dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons were used to determine the neurotoxic effects of HIV-gp120 protein and/or antiretroviral drug dideoxycytidine (ddC) and the therapeutic actions of insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) on gp120- or ddC-induced neurotoxicity. DRG neurons were exposed to gp120 (500 pmol/L), ddC (50 μmol/L), gp120 (500 pmol/L) plus ddC (50 μmol/L), gp120 (500 pmol/L) plus IGF-1 (20 nmol/L), ddC (50 μmol/L) plus IGF-1 (20 nmol/L), gp120 (500 pmol/L) plus ddC (50 μmol/L) plus IGF-1 (20 nmol/L), respectively, for 72 hours. The results showed that gp120 and/or ddC caused neurotoxicity of primary cultured DRG neurons. Interestingly, the severity of neurotoxicity induced by gp120 and ddC was different in different subpopulation of DRG neurons. gp120 mainly affected large diameter DRG neurons (>25 μm), whereas ddC mainly affected small diameter DRG neurons (≤25 μm). IGF-1 could reverse the neurotoxicity induced by gp120 and/or ddC on small, but not large, DRG neurons. These data provide new insights in elucidating the pathogenesis of HIV infection- or antiretroviral therapy-related peripheral neuropathy and facilitating the development of novel treatment strategies.Biomolecules and Therapeutics 11/2014; 22(6):532-539. · 0.84 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-related neuropathic pain is a debilitating chronic condition that is severe and unrelenting. Despite extensive research, the detailed neuropathological mechanisms remain unknown, which hinders our ability to develop effective treatments. In this study, we investigated the role of proinflammatory molecules, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα), CXCR4 and stromal-derived factor-1 α (SDF1α), in the L4/5 dorsal root ganglia (DRG) and the spinal dorsal horn in HIV gp120 protein-mediated neuropathic pain. Our results showed that the application of HIV gp120 to the sciatic nerve induced upregulation of TNFα, CXCR4 and SDF1α in both the DRG and the lumbar spinal dorsal horn. Non-replicating herpes simplex virus (HSV) vector encoding the p55TNFSR gene and producing a TNF-soluble receptor (TNFSR) to block bioactivity of TNFα reversed mechanical allodynia. Intrathecal AMD3100 (CXCR4 antagonist) increased mechanical threshold. The HSV vectors expressing p55TNFSR reversed upregulation of TNFα, CXCR4 and SDF1α induced by gp120 in the DRG and the spinal dorsal horn. These studies suggest that proinflammatory TNFα to the CXCR4/SDF1 pathway has an important role in the HIV-related neuropathic pain state and that blocking the proinflammatory cytokines or chemokines is able to reduce neuropathic pain. This work provides a novel gene therapy proof-of-concept for HIV-associated neuropathic pain.Gene Therapy advance online publication, 23 January 2014; doi:10.1038/gt.2013.90.Gene therapy 01/2014; · 4.75 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-associated sensory neuropathy is a common neurological complication of HIV infection affecting up to 30% of HIV-positive individuals. However, the exact neuropathological mechanisms remain unknown, which hinders our ability to develop effective treatments for HIV-related neuropathic pain (NP). In this study, we tested the hypothesis that inhibition of proinflammatory factors with overexpression of interleukin (IL)-10 reduces HIV-related NP in a rat model.Anesthesia & Analgesia 09/2014; 119(3):693-701. · 3.42 Impact Factor