Risk analysis of needle stick and sharp object injuries among health care workers in a tertiary care hospital (Saudi Arabia)

Adult Infectious Diseases Division, King Fahad Medical City, Riyadh, Riyadh 11176, Saudi Arabia.
Journal of epidemiology and global health 09/2013; 3(3):123-9. DOI: 10.1016/j.jegh.2013.03.004
Source: PubMed


To study different risk factors associated with needle stick injury among health care workers of a tertiary care hospital in Saudi Arabia.
Retrospective study involving all reported cases of needle stick and sharp object injury among health care workers through using Epinet™ access U.K. version 1.3 program in King Saud Medical City (KSMC) during the period (January 2007-December 2011).
During the study period, 477 needle stick and sharp object injuries were reported with peak incidence (13.84%) during 2009. Distribution of needle stick and sharp object injuries according to the location of their occurrence clarified that patient room/ward was the most common place of occurrence of NSSIs 150/477, followed by emergency department 82/477, then the intensive and critical care units 70/477. The study presented that nurses were encountered as the most affected job category and use of items is the most common activity associated with the incidents. Most of the incidents were caused by needles with disposable needle and hands were the most affected body parts.
Needle stick and sharp object injuries represent a major occupational challenge to health care workers. Prevention should be based on different working lines including immunization, education of health care workers and proper engineering control measures.

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    • "Nursing was the most common profession among HCWs with OE in this study and previously reported studies. Memish et al. [12] and Lee et al. [13] reported similar results where 65.4% and 64.6% of exposures were among nurses, respectively. Nurses are the primary occupation group who are in charge of blood sampling and other parenteral procedures in hospitals. "
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    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study is to determine the risk factors for percutaneous and mucocutaneous exposures in healthcare workers (HCW) in one of the largest centers of a middle income country, Turkey. This study has a retrospective design. HCWs who presented between August 2011 and June 2013, with Occupational Exposures (OEs) (cases) and those without (controls) were included. Demographic information was collected from infection control committee documents. A questionnaire was used to ask the HCWs about their awareness of preventive measures. HCWs who work with intensive work loads such as those found in emergency departments or intensive care units have a higher risk of OEs. Having heavy workloads and hours increases the risk of percutaneous and mucocutaneous exposures. For that reason the most common occupation groups are nurses and cleaning staff who are at risk of OEs. Increasing work experience has reduced the frequency of OEs. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
    07/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.jegh.2015.06.003
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    • "But Memish et al., (2013) found that medical/surgical wards were the places with the most frequency of NSIs, but unlike most of other studies she did not separate medical wards from surgical wards, which could have given different results. Nurses were found to be the most occupational health group to have NSSIs [Memish et al., (2013), Kebede et al., (2012), Yoshikawa et al., (2013), Hoffmann et al., (2013) and Voide et al., (2012)].This can be explained by the facts that the nurses administer most of the injections and intravenous fluid administration, basically nurses are the most healthcare group dealing with injections and sharp objects, plus the numbers of nurses are usually higher than any other occupational group inside hospitals, not forgetting that shortage of nurses inside hospitals is also an issue. Martins et al., (2012) reported a very interesting finding, which is some of the NSIs were actually caused by a HCW colleague; she reported that 4.3% of her sample reported their injury inflicted by another healthcare worker. "
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Needlestick and sharp injuries (NSSIs) are defined as percutaneous injuries with needles or sharp objects contaminated with blood or other body fluids. NSSIs are considered as a major occupational hazard among healthcare workers (HCWs) since needles and sharp objects are commonly used in hospitals. Objectives: The objective of this study is to conduct a systematic review on the published scientific literature to provide accurate assessment of needlestick and sharp injuries among healthcare workers including prevalence, risk factors, predictors, reporting, and interventions. Methods: The following selection criteria were used to perform a systematic search of the literature: research studies published in English language between 2011 and 2014, targeted population is the healthcare workers providing direct care to the patients in the hospitals. The outcome of the study is the needlestick and sharp injuries. The following databases were searched: ScienceDirect, Scopus, and EBSCO. The included search terms were: needlestick injury, sharp injury, NSI or NSSI and healthworkers. The search was limited to cross-sectional studies, retrospective studies, and randomized controlled trials conducted in the hospital. The criteria to select articles were limited to peer-reviewed scientific publications and review articles were excluded. Result: Based on the inclusion and exclusion criteria, screening was done to the 35 articles. 18 articles were found eligible to be included while 17 studies were excluded. The included studies consisted of 10 cross-sectional, 7 retrospective, and 1 intervention study. In general, higher NSSI rates were found in nurses (average reported between 64.1% - 44.3%) compared to other occupational groups (average NSSI rate reported were first year resident physician 45%, interns 26% and housekeeper 12.3%). Conclusion: NSSIs is an important occupational hazard among health workers in their daily working. More emphasis must be put on investigating methods and strategies to reduce NSSIs. Safety devices must be used more by HCWs to reduce NSSIs along with planning educational and training programs with close monitoring to practices.
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Accidental occupational injuries to health care workers continue to have a significant problem in healthcare systems owing to the associated risk of acquiring infections such as hepatitis B, hepatitis C and human immunodeficiency viruses.
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