NS5A inhibitor, daclatasvir, for the treatment of chronic hepatitis C virus infection

University of Pennsylvania, Department of Gastroenterology Research , Philadelphia, PA 19104 , USA.
Expert Opinion on Investigational Drugs (Impact Factor: 5.53). 08/2013; 22(10). DOI: 10.1517/13543784.2013.826189
Source: PubMed


Chronic Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a major pandemic. The current standard of care includes peginterferon and ribavirin plus one of two protease inhibitors, boceprevir and telaprevir, for Genotype 1 patients and peginterferon and ribavirin for all other genotypes. The treatment landscape is rapidly evolving as a number of direct-acting antivirals (DAA) are being developed in clinical trials.

Areas covered:
Daclatasvir, formerly labeled BMS-790052, is a first-in-class HCV NS5A inhibitor that has been demonstrated in Phase I and II trials to have a very potent antiviral effect across all genotypes and to have a potent clinical efficacy in both treatment naive and experienced cohorts. This review covers the whole spectrum of development of daclatasvir from Phase I to III programs.

Expert opinion:
While daclatasvir has pangenotypic activity, it has a lower barrier to resistance in Genotype 1a but has been found to be very effective in Genotype 1b patients. However, Genotype 1a patients can be successfully treated with the addition of one or more DAAs alone or in combination with peginterferon and ribavirin. The future for daclatasvir and other DAAs is very encouraging in that all-oral therapies are likely to be effective and well-tolerated.

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    ABSTRACT: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection affects about 160 million people worldwide. It is treated with pegylated-interferon (peg-IFN) and ribavirin, and in the case of patients affected by genotype 1, also with a protease inhibitor (telaprevir or boceprevir). Despite a good success rate, IFN-based combinations are contraindicated in several patients (e.g. decompensated cirrhosis, patients with psychiatric disorders, severe heart diseases or autoimmune disorders) and are associated with frequent adverse events that ultimately reduce their use. Numerous oral drugs are in an advanced phase of clinical development, and in some cases, in IFN-free combinations. This review focuses on preclinical and clinical data regarding daclatasvir (BMS-790052), which is a highly selective HCV NS5A replication complex inhibitor effective against HCV genotypes 1, 2, 3 and 4. In vitro data show that daclatasvir exerts a very potent antiviral effect against several HCV genotypes. Its pharmacokinetics is optimal and allows once-a-day oral administration. Its adverse event profile is good. Clinical data regarding its efficacy in combination with peg-IFN, ribavirin or other direct antiviral agents are impressive (rates of sustained virological response range between 60% and 100% in treatment-naïve patients). The only drawback of this drug appears to be a relatively low genetic barrier to resistance. In conclusion, daclatasvir, especially in combinations with other antiviral agents, is a very promising drug for the treatment of chronic hepatitis C.
    Current Medicinal Chemistry 12/2013; 21(12). DOI:10.2174/0929867321666131228222215 · 3.85 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The biphenyl derivatives 2 and 3 are prototypes of a novel class of NS5A replication complex inhibitors that demonstrate high inhibitory potency toward a panel of clinically relevant HCV strains encompassing genotypes 1-6. However, these compounds exhibit poor systemic exposure in rat pharmacokinetic studies after oral dosing. The structure-activity relationship investigations that improved the exposure properties of the parent bis-phenylimidazole chemotype, culminating in the identification of the highly potent NS5A replication complex inhibitor daclatasvir (33) are described. An element critical to success was the realization that the arylglycine cap of 2 could be replaced with an alkylglycine derivative and still maintain the high inhibitory potency of the series if accompanied with a stereoinversion, a finding that enabled a rapid optimization of exposure properties. Compound 33 had EC50 values of 50 and 9 pM toward genotype-1a and -1b replicons, respectively, and oral bioavailabilities of 38-108% in preclinical species. Compound 33 provided clinical proof-of-concept for the NS5A replication complex inhibitor class, and regulatory approval to market it with the NS3/4A protease inhibitor asunaprevir for the treatment of HCV genotype-1b infection has recently been sought in Japan.
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    ABSTRACT: Over the past several years, hepatitis C therapy has been pegylated interferon and ribavirin based. Although protease inhibitor-based therapy has enhanced response rates in genotype 1, the recent advances in therapy have demonstrated a challenge in genotype 3, a highly prevalent infection globally. To provide a comprehensive summary of the literature evaluating the unique characteristics and evolving therapies in genotype 3. A structured search in PubMed, the Cochrane Library and EMBASE was performed using defined key words, including only full text papers and abstracts in English. HCV genotype 3 is more prevalent in Asia and among intra-venous drug users. Furthermore, it interferes with lipid and glucose metabolism, and the natural history involves a more rapid progression of liver disease and a higher incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). New therapies with protease inhibitors have focused on genotype 1 largely and have demonstrated enhanced responses, but have limited activity against genotype 3. Thus far, in clinical trials, NS5B and NS5A inhibitors have performed more poorly in genotype 3, while a cyclophilin inhibitor, alisporivir, has shown promise. As treatments for HCV have evolved, genotype 3 has become the most difficult to treat. Furthermore, genotype 3 has special characteristics, such as insulin resistance and alterations in lipid metabolism, which may partly explain the lower treatment responses. A great deal of emphasis on advancing therapy is needed in this population that appears to have a more rapid progression of liver disease and a higher incidence of HCC.
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