Department of Biochemistry, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, WI 53706.Soft Matter (Impact Factor: 4.03). 05/2013; 9(18):4368-4380. DOI: 10.1039/C3SM27705D
The interaction of bacteria with surfaces has important implications in a range of areas, including bioenergy, biofouling, biofilm formation, and the infection of plants and animals. Many of the interactions of bacteria with surfaces produce changes in the expression of genes that influence cell morphology and behavior, including genes essential for motility and surface attachment. Despite the attention that these phenotypes have garnered, the bacterial systems used for sensing and responding to surfaces are still not well understood. An understanding of these mechanisms will guide the development of new classes of materials that inhibit and promote cell growth, and complement studies of the physiology of bacteria in contact with surfaces. Recent studies from a range of fields in science and engineering are poised to guide future investigations in this area. This review summarizes recent studies on bacteria-surface interactions, discusses mechanisms of surface sensing and consequences of cell attachment, provides an overview of surfaces that have been used in bacterial studies, and highlights unanswered questions in this field.
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- "This could be due to an influence of the surface modification on the expression of proteins involved in the electrochemical competence of this strain. Alternatively or additionally, the initial attachment of the bacteria might be hampered by hydrophilic surfaces as bacteria only tend to attach to hydrophilic surfaces if their surface energy is higher than in the suspending medium   "
ABSTRACT: Several mixed microbial communities have been reported to show robust bioelectrocatalysis of oxygen reduction over time at applicable operation conditions. However, clarification of electron transfer mechanism(s) and identification of essential micro-organisms have not been realised. Therefore, the objective of this study was to shape oxygen reducing biocathodes with different microbial communities by means of surface modification using the electrochemical reduction of two different diazonium salts in order to discuss the relation of microbial composition and performance. The resulting oxygen reducing mixed culture biocathodes had complex bacterial biofilms variable in size and shape as observed by confocal and electron microscopy. Sequence analysis of ribosomal 16S rDNA revealed a putative correlation between the abundance of certain microbiota and biocathode performance. The best performing biocathode developed on the unmodified graphite electrode and reached a high current density for oxygen reducing biocathodes at neutral pH (0.9 A/m2). This correlated with the highest domination (60.7 %) of a monophyletic group of unclassified γ-Proteobacteria. These results corroborate earlier reports by other groups, however, higher current densities and higher presence of these unclassified bacteria were observed in this work. Therefore, members of this group are likely key-players for highly performing oxygen reducing biocathodes.Bioelectrochemistry 12/2015; 106(Part A):167-176. DOI:10.1016/j.bioelechem.2015.04.004 · 4.17 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: An analysis of a novel indentation model has been implemented to obtain master curves describing the optimal experimental parameters necessary to achieve the highest possible accuracy in the determination of viscoelastic properties of soft materials. The indentation model is a rigid indenter driven by a compliant measurement system, such as an atomic force microscope or optical tweezers, into a viscoelastic half space. The viscoelastic material is described as a multiple relaxation Prony series. The results have been extended via an application of a viscoelastic equivalence principle to other physical models such as poroelasticity. Optimisation of the indentation parameters has been conducted over many orders of magnitude of the velocity, viscoelastic moduli, spring stiffness, relaxation times and the duration of indentation resulting in a characteristic master curve. It is shown that using sub-optimal conditions gives the appearance of a more elastic material than is actually the case. For a two term Prony series the ideal ramp duration was found to be approximately one eighth of the relaxation. Also the ideal ramp duration for a three term Prony series was determined and shown to guarantee distinct relaxation times under specific conditions. http://pubs.rsc.org/en/content/articlelanding/2013/sm/c3sm50706hSoft Matter 05/2013; 9:5581. DOI:10.1039/c3sm50706h · 4.03 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: We present a novel method for quantitative analysis of dicot leaf expansion at high temporal resolution. Image sequences of growing leaves were assessed using a marker tracking algorithm. An important feature of the method is the attachment of dark beads that serve as artificial landmarks to the leaf margin. The beads are mechanically constricted to the focal plane of a camera. Leaf expansion is approximated by the increase in area of the polygon defined by the centers of mass of the beads surrounding the leaf. Fluctuating illumination conditions often pose serious problems for tracking natural structures of a leaf; this problem is circumvented here by the use of the beads. The new method has been used to assess leaf growth in environmental situations with different illumination conditions that are typical in agricultural and biological experiments: Constant illumination via fluorescent light tubes in a climate chamber, a mix of natural and artificial illumination in a greenhouse and natural illumination of the situation on typical summer days in the field. Typical features of diel (24h) soybean leaf growth patterns were revealed in all three conditions, thereby demonstrating the general applicability of the method. Algorithms are provided to the entire community interested in using such approaches. The implementation Martrack Leaf presented here is a robust method to investigate diel leaf growth rhythms both under natural and artificial illumination conditions. It will be beneficial for the further elucidation of genotype x environment x management interactions affecting leaf growth processes.Plant Methods 07/2013; 9(1):30. DOI:10.1186/1746-4811-9-30 · 3.10 Impact Factor
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