Serum Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor and Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Levels Are Associated With Risk of Stroke and Vascular Brain Injury Framingham Study
ABSTRACT Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), a major neurotrophin and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) have a documented role in neurogenesis, angiogenesis, and neuronal survival. In animal experiments, they impact infarct size and functional motor recovery after an ischemic brain lesion. We sought to examine the association of serum BDNF and VEGF with the risk of clinical stroke or subclinical vascular brain injury in a community-based sample.
In 3440 Framingham Study participants (mean age, 65±11 years; 56% women) who were free of stroke/transient ischemic attack (TIA), we related baseline BDNF and logVEGF to risk of incident stroke/TIA. In a subsample with brain MRI and with neuropsychological tests available (n=1863 and 2104, respectively; mean age, 61±9 years, 55% women, in each), we related baseline BDNF and logVEGF to log-white matter hyperintensity volume on brain MRI, and to visuospatial memory and executive function tests.
During a median follow-up of 10 years, 193 participants experienced incident stroke/TIA. In multivariable analyses adjusted for age, sex, and traditional stroke risk factors, lower BDNF and higher logVEGF levels were associated with an increased risk of incident stroke/TIA (hazard ratio comparing BDNF Q1 versus Q2-Q4, 1.47; 95% confidence interval, 1.09-2.00; P=0.012 and hazard ratio/SD increase in logVEGF, 1.21; 95% confidence interval, 1.04-1.40; P=0.012). Persons with higher BDNF levels had less log-white matter hyperintensity volume (β±SE=-0.05±0.02; P=0.025), and better visual memory (β±SE=0.18±0.07; P=0.005).
Lower serum BDNF and higher VEGF concentrations were associated with increased risk of incident stroke/TIA. Higher levels of BDNF were also associated with less white matter hyperintensity and better visual memory. Our findings suggest that circulating BDNF and VEGF levels modify risk of clinical and subclinical vascular brain injury.
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ABSTRACT: To test the hypothesis that physical activity modifies the association between white matter hyperintensity (WMH) burden and motor function in healthy older persons without dementia. Total daily activity (exercise and nonexercise physical activity) was measured for up to 11 days with actigraphy (Actical; Philips Respironics, Bend, OR) in 167 older adults without dementia participating in the Rush Memory and Aging Project. Eleven motor performances were summarized into a previously described global motor score. WMH volume was expressed as percent of intracranial volume. Linear regression models, adjusted for age, education, and sex, were performed with total WMH volume as the predictor and global motor score as the outcome. Terms for total daily physical activity and its interaction with WMH volume were then added to the model. Higher WMH burden was associated with lower motor function (p = 0.006), and total daily activity was positively associated with motor function (p = 0.002). Total daily activity modified the association between WMH and motor function (p = 0.007). WMH burden was not associated with motor function in persons with high activity (90th percentile). By contrast, higher WMH burden remained associated with lower motor function in persons with average (50th percentile; estimate = -0.304, slope = -0.133) and low (10th percentile; estimate = -1.793, slope = -0.241) activity. Higher levels of physical activity may reduce the effect of WMH burden on motor function in healthy older adults. © 2015 American Academy of Neurology.Neurology 03/2015; 84(13). DOI:10.1212/WNL.0000000000001417 · 8.30 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: We investigated the association between circulating biomarkers of inflammation and MRI markers of small vessel disease. We performed a cross-sectional study relating a panel of 15 biomarkers, representing systemic inflammation (high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, interleukin-6, monocyte chemotactic protein-1, tumor necrosis factor α, tumor necrosis factor receptor 2, osteoprotegerin, and fibrinogen), vascular inflammation (intercellular adhesion molecule 1, CD40 ligand, P-selectin, lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 mass and activity, total homocysteine, and vascular endothelial growth factor), and oxidative stress (myeloperoxidase) to ischemic (white matter hyperintensities/silent cerebral infarcts) and hemorrhagic (cerebral microbleeds) markers of cerebral small vessel disease (CSVD) on MRI in 1,763 stroke-free Framingham offspring (mean age 60.2 ± 9.1 years, 53.7% women). We observed higher levels of circulating tumor necrosis factor receptor 2 and myeloperoxidase in the presence of cerebral microbleed (odds ratio [OR] 2.2, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.1-4.1 and OR 1.5, 95% CI 1.1-2.0, respectively), higher levels of osteoprotegerin (OR 1.1, 95% CI 1.0-1.2), intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (OR 1.7, 95% CI 1.1-2.5), and lipoprotein-associated phospholipase A2 mass (OR 1.5, 95% CI 1.1-2.1), and lower myeloperoxidase (OR 0.8, 95% CI 0.7-1.0) in participants with greater white matter hyperintensity volumes and silent cerebral infarcts. Our study supports a possible role for inflammation in the pathogenesis of CSVD, but suggests that differing inflammatory pathways may underlie ischemic and hemorrhagic subtypes. If validated in other samples, these biomarkers may improve stroke risk prognostication and point to novel therapeutic targets to combat CSVD. © 2015 American Academy of Neurology.Neurology 01/2015; 84(8). DOI:10.1212/WNL.0000000000001279 · 8.30 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The aim of the present study was to investigate the potential clinical application of the genetic marker microRNA (miRNA)-210 in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and serum of patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). The enrolled patients were divided into the mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and AD groups. Healthy individuals were used as the controls. The mRNA and protein expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in the CSF and serum samples was detected by reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) and western blot analysis, respectively. The expression of miRNA-210 in the CSF and serum was detected by RT-qPCR. The results revealed that the mRNA and protein expression levels of VEGF in the CSF and serum were decreased in the MCI and AD groups compared with those in the control group. The greater the severity of the dementia, the lower the mRNA and protein expression of VEGF. Similar to the trend observed for VEGF, the miRNA-210 expression in the CSF and serum decreased as the severity of the AD increased. miRNA-210 is thus not only indicative of AD pathogenesis, but may also provide novel insights into the prevention and treatment of the disease.Experimental and therapeutic medicine 03/2015; 9(3):1013-1017. DOI:10.3892/etm.2015.2179 · 0.94 Impact Factor