Impaired CD4+ and T-helper 17 cell memory response to Streptococcus pneumoniae is associated with elevated glucose and percent glycated hemoglobin A1c in Mexican Americans with type 2 diabetes mellitus
Division of Epidemiology, Human Genetics and Environmental Health Sciences, School of Public Health, University of Texas Health Science Center, Brownsville Regional Campus, Brownsville, Tex.
Translational research : the journal of laboratory and clinical medicine
08/2013; 163(1). DOI: 10.1016/j.trsl.2013.07.005
Individuals with type 2 diabetes are significantly more susceptible to pneumococcal infections than healthy individuals of the same age. Increased susceptibility is the result of impairments in both innate and adaptive immune systems. Given the central role of T-helper 17 (Th17) and T-regulatory (Treg) cells in pneumococcal infection and their altered phenotype in diabetes, this study was designed to analyze the Th17 and Treg cell responses to a whole heat-killed capsular type 2 strain of Streptococcus pneumoniae. Patients with diabetes demonstrated a lower frequency of total CD4+ T cells, which showed a significant inverse association with elevated fasting blood glucose. Measurement of specific subsets indicated that those with diabetes had, low intracellular levels of interleukin (IL)-17, and lower pathogen-specific memory CD4+ and IL-17+ cell numbers. No significant difference was observed in the frequency of CD4+ and Th17 cells between those with and without diabetes. However, stratification of data by obesity indicated a significant increase in frequency of CD4+ and Th17 cells in obese individuals with diabetes compared with nonobese individual with diabetes. The memory CD4+ T-cell response was associated inversely with both fasting blood glucose and percent glycated hemoglobin A1c. This study demonstrated that those with type 2 diabetes have a diminished pathogen-specific memory CD4+ and Th17 response, and low percentages of CD4+ T cells in response to S. pneumoniae stimulation.
Available from: Sung Min Son
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ABSTRACT: Alzheimer’s disease (AD), the most common form of dementia, is characterized by senile plaques, neurofibrillary tangles (NFT), and neuronal loss. Although many studies have focused on amyloid beta peptide (Ab) as a main toxin of AD, the exact mechanism of AD pathogenesisis not yet known. In this review, we focus on advanced glycation endproducts (AGEs) and their receptor (Receptor for AGEs [RAGE]) in AD pathogenesis. Several convincing pieces of evidence suggest that the blockade of AGEs and RAGE interactions is a promising therapeutic target for AD treatment.
Edited by Reiko Inagi, 03/2014; International Maillard Reaction Society.
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ABSTRACT: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2) confers a higher risk for active tuberculosis (TB). However, information on associated risk factors for latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) inpatients with DM2 is limited. We conducted a cross-sectional study to elucidate the prevalence of LTBI and its associated factors on Mexican adults with DM2 receiving medical care at the Mexican Social Security Institute (IMSS).
Six hundred patients with DM2 without a prior history of TB from outpatient diabetes clinics were enrolled in the study. The tuberculin-skin-test (TST) was performed. The presence of LTBI was defined by a TST value of ≥5 mm. A standardized interview and physical examination were conducted to obtain clinical, demographic, and LTBI risk factor information; all subjects were laboratory tested to determine the presence of exclusion criteria. Microscopic examination of sputum samples and chest x-rays was performed to identify potential active TB. Subjects with any finding suggesting active TB or malignancy were excluded. A logistic regression model was used to identify variables associated with LTBI.
LTBI prevalence among patients with DM2 was 51.3%. Risk factors for LTBI were living with a relative with TB, having been in prison, having hemoglobin values >14 g/dL, and glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) values of >7%. Blood pressure, economic income, or anthropometric measurements were not associated risk factors.
Over one half of patients with DM harbor LTBI. Exposure to certain environmental conditions and poorly controlled DM2 (HbA1c >7.0%) were risk factors for having LTBI in persons with DM2.
Copyright © 2015 IMSS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Archives of medical research 04/2015; 46(3). DOI:10.1016/j.arcmed.2015.03.009 · 2.65 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: It is believed that the recently discovered interleukin 17-producing Th17 cells play a role in the pathogenesis of chronic inflammation in the course of obesity and diabetes.
The purpose of our study was to complete data on this subject in children.
We assessed Th17 cell levels in the peripheral blood of children diagnosed with central obesity (n = 14) and compared the results with data obtained in patients with newly diagnosed (n = 11) and long-term type 1 diabetes mellitus (n = 18), and in a control group as well (n = 24).
(i) Children with central obesity were characterized by higher percentages of Th17 cells as compared to children from the control group; (ii) in the peripheral blood of patients with long-term type 1 diabetes the Th17 cell counts were higher compared to the control group; (iii) total plasma cholesterol concentration correlated positively with Th17/Treg cells ratio; and (iv) among patients with long-term diabetes, disease duration correlated positively with Th17 cell count and Th17/Th1 cell ratio.
The results of our study indicate that Th17 cells may be involved in chronic inflammation accompanying obesity and type 1 diabetes mellitus in children.
Scandinavian journal of clinical and laboratory investigation 07/2015; 75(7):1-7. DOI:10.3109/00365513.2015.1066845 · 1.90 Impact Factor
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