Notes on the coral-inhabiting Megatrematinae and the description of a new tribe, new genus and three new species (Cirripedia: Sessilia: Pyrgomatidae)

Sessile Organism 01/2002; 19:57-68. DOI: 10.4282/sosj.19.57


There are 13 species of coral-inhabiting megatrematine barnacles of which five or possibly six are
extinct. Despite a meager geological record dating from the early Pliocene, it appears, based on their distribution megatrematines are far older than indicated by their fossil record, likely originating early in the Miocene ifnot the Oligocene. Nonetheless, in apparently maintaining a conservative morphology, especially in their opercular plates, they never attained the diversity of forms such as found in the coral-inhabiting pyrgomatines. However, we propose new taxa herein including Memagreta n. gen. for M. pandorae n. sp., Megatrema youngi n. sp. and Pyrgomina djanae n. sp. The extinct species Pyrgoma elargatum Seguenza and P sulcatum Philippi are considered valid species and herein assigned to Pyrgomina. Adna Sowerby is reinstituted as a valid genus. The tribe Pyrgominini is proposed for Pyrgomina and Adna and the tribe Megatrematini for Megatrema and Memagreta.

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Available from: Fabio Bettini Pitombo, Sep 30, 2015
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    ABSTRACT: The present study recorded the biodiversity of cirripedes collected in the Philippine Panglao 2005 Expedition, which yielded 20 species in 4 families of stalked barnacles and 3 families in sessile barnacles. All species were described using light microscopy and selected species which received lesser descriptions were studied using scanning electron microscope to illustrate the fi ne details including the setations of the mouth parts and cirri. The present study identifi ed new Arcoscalpellum and Paralepas species and with new records in the Philippine waters including Teloscalpellum ecaudatum, Trianguloscalpellum diota, Paralepas minuta and Adna anglica.
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    ABSTRACT: Pyrgomatid barnacles are a family of balanomorphs uniquely adapted to symbiosis on corals. The evolution of the coral-dwelling barnacles is explored using a multi-gene phylogeny (COI, 16S, 12S, 18S, and H3) and phenotypic trait-mapping. We found that the hydrocoral associate Wanella should be excluded, while some archaeobalanids in the genus Armatobalanus should be included in the Pyrgomatidae. Three well supported clades were recovered: clade I is the largest group and is exclusively Indo-West Pacific, clade II contains two plesiomorphic Indo-West Pacific genera, while clade III is comprised of East and West Atlantic taxa. Some genera did not form reciprocally monophyletic groups, while the genus Trevathana was found to be paraphyletic and to include members of three other apomorphic genera/tribes. The highly unusual coral-parasitic hoekiines appear to be of recent origin and rapidly evolving from Trevathana sensu lato. Pyrgomatids include six-, four-, and one-plated forms, and exhibit convergent evolutionary tendencies towards skeletal reduction and fusion, loss of cirral armature, and increased host specificity. © 2014 The Linnean Society of London, Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, 2014, ●●, ●●–●●.
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