Effects of yoga exercise on salivary beta-defensin 2.
ABSTRACT Yoga stretching can be done comfortably and easily by beginners and older adults to compensate for lack of exercise or poor health maintenance. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of yoga stretching on mucosal immune functions, primarily human β-defensin 2 (HBD-2) in saliva.
Fifteen healthy adults (age, 60.4 ± 8.0 years) participated in the study. Participants rested for 90 min on the first day and performed yoga for 90 min on the second day. Measurements were carried out before and after rest or yoga. Saliva samples were collected by chewing a sterile cotton at a frequency of 60 cycles per min. Salivary HBD-2 concentration was measured using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.
HBD-2 concentration after yoga stretching (165.4 ± 127.1 pg/mL) was significantly higher than that before yoga stretching (84.1 ± 63.4 pg/mL; p < 0.01). HBD-2 expression rate after yoga stretching (232.8 ± 192.9 pg/min) was significantly higher than that before yoga stretching (110.7 ± 96.8 pg/min; p < 0.01). HBD-2 concentration (p < 0.05) and HBD-2 expression rate (p < 0.01) at post on the second day (yoga) was significantly higher than that on the first day (rest). POMS score of anger-hostility was lower after yoga than before.
Yoga stretching for 90 min can increase salivary HBD-2 expression in older adults. Therefore, yoga stretching might be useful for older adults and athletes to maintain their health.
Article: IgA and mucosal defense.[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The traditional role of IgA antibodies in mucosal defense has been considered as providing an immune barrier to keep exogenous substances, including microbial pathogens, from penetrating the mucosa. In this way infections can be prevented. More recently, studies in vitro and in vivo are providing evidence to suggest that IgA may have additional roles in mucosal defense. For example, during their passage through the lining epithelial cells of mucous membranes en route to the secretions, IgA antibodies may have an opportunity to neutralize intracellular pathogens like viruses. Also, IgA antibodies in the mucosal lamina propria have opportunities to complex with antigens and excrete them through the adjacent mucosal epithelium, again by the same route to the secretions that is taken by free IgA. These latter functions could aid in recovery from infection.Apmis 05/1995; 103(4):241-6. · 2.07 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Defensins are antimicrobial and cytotoxic peptides that contain 29-35 amino acid residues, including six invariant cysteines whose intramolecular disulfide bonds cyclize and stabilize them in a complexly folded, triple-stranded beta-sheet configuration. Generated by the proteolytic processing of 93-95 amino acid precursor peptides, the constitute > 5% of the total cellular protein in human and rabbit neutrophils (polymorphonucleated neutrophils--PMN) and are also produced by rabbit lung macrophages and by mouse and rabbit small intestinal Paneth cells. Despite their prominence in rat PMN, defensins are not found in murine PMN. The antimicrobial spectrum of defensins includes gram positive and gram negative bacteria, mycobacteria, T. pallidum, many fungi, and some enveloped viruses. Defensins exert nonspecific cytotoxic activity against a wide range of normal and malignant targets, including cells resistant to TNF-alpha and NK-cytolytic factor. They appear to kill mammalian target cells and microorganisms by a common mechanism, which involves initial electrostatic interactions with negatively charged target cell surface molecules (likely the head groups of polar membrane lipids), followed by insertion into the cell membranes which they permeabilize, forming voltage-regulated channels. In addition to their antimicrobial and cytotoxic properties, some defensins act as opsonins, while others inhibit protein kinase C, bind specifically to the ACTH receptor and block steroidogenesis or act as selective chemoattractants for monocytes. Defensins are a newly delineated family of effector molecules whose contribution to host defense, inflammation, and cytotoxicity may be considerable for humans, even though it is unlikely to be revealed by experimentation with mice.Annual Review of Immunology 01/1993; 11:105-28. · 36.56 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The antimicrobial peptide LL-37 belongs to the cathelicidin family and is the first amphipathic alpha-helical peptide isolated from human. LL-37 is considered to play an important role in the first line of defence against local infection and systemic invasion of pathogens at sites of inflammation and wounds. Understanding its mode of action may assist in the development of antimicrobial agents mimicking those of the human immune system. In vitro studies revealed that LL-37 is cytotoxic to both bacterial and normal eukaryotic cells. To gain insight into the mechanism of its non-cell-selective cytotoxicity, we synthesized and structurally and functionally characterized LL-37, its N-terminal truncated form FF-33, and their fluorescent derivatives (which retained structure and activity). The results showed several differences, between LL-37 and other native antimicrobial peptides, that may shed light on its in vivo activities. Most interestingly, LL-37 exists in equilibrium between monomers and oligomers in solution at very low concentrations. Also, it is significantly resistant to proteolytic degradation in solution, and when bound to both zwitterionic (mimicking mammalian membranes) and negatively charged membranes (mimicking bacterial membranes). The results also showed a role for the N-terminus in proteolytic resistance and haemolytic activity, but not in antimicrobial activity. The LL-37 mode of action with negatively charged membranes suggests a detergent-like effect via a 'carpet-like' mechanism. However, the ability of LL-37 to oligomerize in zwitterionic membranes might suggest the formation of a transmembrane pore in normal eukaryotic cells. To examine this possibility we used polarized attenuated total reflectance Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy and found that the peptide is predominantly alpha-helical and oriented nearly parallel with the surface of zwitterionic-lipid membranes. This result does not support the channel-forming hypothesis, but rather it supports the detergent-like effect.Biochemical Journal 09/1999; 341 ( Pt 3):501-13. · 4.65 Impact Factor