Factors associated with remaining on initial randomized efavirenz-containing regimens
ABSTRACT Efavirenz (EFV) along with two nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) is a recommended initial antiretroviral regimen. Understanding characteristics related to EFV success is clinically useful.
Data from 2220 antiretroviral-naive participants randomized to EFV and two to three NRTIs in four ACTG trials as well as a long-term cohort were analysed.
Logistic regression, using inverse probability of censoring weighting to address selective-follow-up bias, was used to identify factors associated with EFV success (no treatment interruptions of >30 days, HIV RNA < 200 copies/ml) 1 year post initiation and at years 2-5 if successful at year 1.
Pretreatment characteristics were median age 38 years, 82% male, 40% white, 10% history of IDU (HxIDU), median CD4 T-lymphocyte 227 cells/μl and 33% HIV RNA more than 100 000 copies/ml. In a multivariable model, factors associated with year 1 EFV success were race [white odds ratio (OR) 1.5; P < 0.001; Hispanic OR 1.5; P = 0.003 vs. black], no pretreatment sign/symptom grade 3 or higher (OR 1.7; P = 0.008) and no HxIDU (OR 1.7; P = 0.001). Predictors of EFV success at years 2-5 were no HxIDU (years 2-5; ORs 1.9-2.2); self-reported complete (4 days prior to study visit) adherence during year 1 (years 2-4; ORs 1.6-1.9); fewer missed visits during year 1 (years 2, 4, 5; ORs 0.92-0.98/1% increase); HIV RNA less than 50 copies/ml at year 1 (years 2, 3; ORs 1.9-2.2); and older age (>50 vs. ≤30 years) (years 2-4: ORs 2.3-3.7).
Characteristics predictive of EFV success in the short-term and longer term differed except for HxIDU. Behaviours occurring during year 1 were associated with EFV success over 5 years.
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Efavirenz is a nonnucleoside reverse-transcriptase inhibitor of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1). We compared two regimens containing efavirenz, one with a protease inhibitor and the other with two nucleoside reverse-transcriptase inhibitors, with a standard three-drug regimen. The study subjects were 450 patients who had not previously been treated with lamivudine or any nonnucleoside reverse-transcriptase inhibitor or protease inhibitor. In this open-label study, patients were randomly assigned to one of three regimens: efavirenz (600 mg daily) plus zidovudine (300 mg twice daily) and lamivudine (150 mg twice daily); the protease inhibitor indinavir (800 mg every eight hours) plus zidovudine and lamivudine; or efavirenz plus indinavir (1000 mg every eight hours). Suppression of plasma HIV-1 RNA to undetectable levels was achieved in more patients in the group given efavirenz plus nucleoside reverse-transcriptase inhibitors than in the group given indinavir plus nucleoside reverse-transcriptase inhibitors (70 percent vs. 48 percent, P<0.001). The efficacy of the regimen of efavirenz plus indinavir was similar (53 percent) to that of the regimen of indinavir, zidovudine, and lamivudine. CD4 cell counts increased significantly with all combinations (range of increases, 180 to 201 cells per cubic millimeter). More patients discontinued treatment because of adverse events in the group given indinavir and two nucleoside reverse-transcriptase inhibitors than in the group given efavirenz and two nucleoside reverse-transcriptase inhibitors (43 percent vs. 27 percent, P=0.005). As antiretroviral therapy in HIV-1-infected adults, the combination of efavirenz, zidovudine, and lamivudine has greater antiviral activity and is better tolerated than the combination of indinavir, zidovudine, and lamivudine.New England Journal of Medicine 12/1999; 341(25):1865-73. DOI:10.1056/NEJM199912163412501 · 54.42 Impact Factor
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: To compare the effectiveness of initial highly active antiretroviral therapy with either: a single protease inhibitor (PI); ritonavir (RTV)/saquinavir (SQV); or efavirenz (EFV) plus nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors. Cohort study. Urban HIV clinic. Five-hundred and forty-five HIV-1-infected individuals with minimal antiretroviral exposure who started combination therapy with > or = 3 antiretroviral drugs and > or = 1 NRTI to which they had not previously been exposed (single PI, 416; RTV/SQV, 68; EFV, 61). HIV-1 RNA < 400 copies/ml within 8 months of starting therapy; time to HIV-1 RNA rebound to > 1000 copies/ml in the subset of patients achieving initial viral suppression; change in CD4 cell count from baseline within 12 months of starting therapy. By intent-to-treat analysis, initial viral suppression was achieved by 72% of patients in the EFV group, compared to 49% in the single PI group (P = 0.001) and 51% in the RTV/SQV group (P = 0.019). Among patients who achieved initial viral suppression, time to viral rebound was similar in the three groups. Durable viral suppression (> or = 3 consecutive HIV-1 RNA levels < 400 copies/ml for > 6 months) was achieved by 53% of patients in the EFV group, 26% in the single PI group, and 29% in the RTV/SQV group (P < 0.05 for both comparisons with EFV). The median CD4 cell count increase was 139 x 10(6) cells/l, and was similar in the three groups. In agreement with a recent clinical trial, use of initial EFV-based combination antiretroviral therapy was associated with higher rates of viral suppression than PI-based therapy in a clinical cohort.AIDS 09/2001; 15(13):1679-86. DOI:10.1097/00002030-200109070-00011 · 6.56 Impact Factor
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: To evaluate the durability and correlates of the effectiveness of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in terms of AIDS-related mortality and morbidity, HIV viremia, and CD4 cell count. The HIV Outpatient Study (HOPS), a prospective observational cohort from eight clinics in the USA that has been running since 1994. Mortality and opportunistic infection (OI) rates were calculated for 1769 HOPS patients with CD4 cell count ever < 100 x 106/l. Data from 1022 HAART recipients with CD4 cell count ever < 500 x 106/l were analyzed. Mortality and AIDS-related OI rates. Treatment success was defined as a reduction in plasma HIV RNA copies/ml of 1.0 log10 or more, or to an undetectable level, with a stable or rising CD4 cell count. Durable success was a successful response lasting at least 12 consecutive months. HAART use remained high; mortality and OIs low. Patients received a mean of 1.8 HAART regimens. Median time on first HAART (n = 1022) was 11.8 months; second HAART (n = 424) 7.4 months; and third HAART (n = 213) 7.2 months. Treatment success was most likely for pre-HAART treatment naive patients; durably successful first HAART most often contained one protease inhibitor, particularly indinavir or nelfinavir (P = 0.006, adjusted for prior antiretroviral therapy). Durable success was most likely with first (49.0%) than with second (29.6%, P = 0.013) or third or more HAART regimens (14.9%, P < 0.0001). Time to success with first HAART was shorter for durable than non-durable responders (3.6 versus 5.3 months, respectively; unadjusted P = 0.002). Durable response to HAART was associated with being pre-HAART therapy naive, prompt response to HAART, and single protease inhibitor-based initial HAART (indinavir or nelfinavir). Sequential HAART regimens were of progressively shorter duration, demonstrated less viral suppression and CD4 cell count benefit, yet low morbidity and mortality rates were sustained.AIDS 08/2002; 16(12):1617-26. DOI:10.1097/00002030-200208160-00007 · 6.56 Impact Factor