West Nile Virus Infection Rates and Avian Serology in East-Central Illinois
Illinois Natural History Survey, University of Illinois, Champaign, IL 61820, USA.Journal of the American Mosquito Control Association (Impact Factor: 0.95). 06/2013; 29(2):108-22. DOI: 10.2987/12-6318R.1
Understanding the geographic role of different species of mosquito vectors and vertebrate hosts in West Nile virus (WNV) transmission cycles can facilitate the development and implementation of targeted surveillance and control measures. This study examined the relationship between WNV-antibody rates in birds and mosquito infection rates and bloodfeeding patterns in east-central Illinois. The earliest detection of WNV-RNA by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction TaqMan was from Culex restuans; however, amplification typically coincided with an increase in abundance of Cx. pipiens. Trap type influenced annual estimates of infection rates in Culex species, as well as estimation of blood meal source. Bird species with the highest WNV-antibody rates (i.e., Mourning Doves [Zenaida macroura], Northern Cardinals [Cardinalis cardinalis], American Robins [Turdus migratorius], and House Sparrows [Passer domesticus]) were also the common species found in Culex blood meals. Although antibody rates were not directly proportional to estimated avian abundance, the apparent availability of mammal species did influence proportion of mammal to bird blood meals. Antibody prevalence in the American Robin was lower than expected based on the strong attraction of Culex to American Robins for blood meals. Age-related differences in serology were evident, antibody rates increased in older groups of robins and sparrows, whereas 1st-year hatch and older adults of Mourning Doves and Northern Cardinals had equally high rates of antibody-positive serum samples. The vector and host interactions observed in east-central Illinois (Champaign County), an urban area surrounded by agriculture, are compared to studies in the densely population areas of southern Cook County.
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- "Many studies have reported differences in antibody prevalence between juveniles and adult birds. In many cases, adult bird antibody prevalence is higher than in juveniles (Gibbs et al. 2006; Hamer et al. 2008; Lampman et al. 2013), which is explained by the additive effect of adult birds being exposed in prior years. However, few studies consider that antibody-negative adult birds could represent false negatives, due to waning antibodies, which could confound analyses that rely on antibody status to infer population metrics, such as mortality (Ward et al. 2010; Kilpatrick et al. 2013). "
ABSTRACT: Antibody duration, following a humoral immune response to West Nile virus (WNV) infection, is poorly understood in free-ranging avian hosts. Quantifying antibody decay rate is important for interpreting serologic results and for understanding the potential for birds to serorevert and become susceptible again. We sampled free-ranging birds in Chicago, Illinois, USA, from 2005 to 2011 and Atlanta, Georgia, USA, from 2010 to 2012 to examine the dynamics of antibody decay following natural WNV infection. Using serial dilutions in a blocking enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, we quantified WNV antibody titer in repeated blood samples from individual birds over time. We quantified a rate of antibody decay for 23 Northern Cardinals (Cardinalis cardinalis) of 0.198 natural log units per month and 24 individuals of other bird species of 0.178 natural log units per month. Our results suggest that juveniles had a higher rate of antibody decay than adults, which is consistent with nonlinear antibody decay at different times postexposure. Overall, most birds had undetectable titers 2 yr postexposure. Nonuniform WNV antibody decay rates in free-ranging birds underscore the need for cautious interpretation of avian serology results in the context of arbovirus surveillance and epidemiology.Journal of wildlife diseases 04/2015; 51(3). DOI:10.7589/2014-07-175 · 1.36 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Epizootic transmission of West Nile virus (WNV) often intensifies rapidly leading to increasing risk of human infection, but the processes underlying amplification remain poorly understood. We quantified epizootic WNV transmission in communities of mosquitoes and birds in the Chicago, Illinois (USA) region during 2005 and 2006. Using quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) methods, we detected WNV in 227 of 1195 mosquito pools (19%) in 2005 and 205 of 1685 (12%) in 2006; nearly all were Culex pipiens. In both years, mosquito infection rates increased rapidly in the second half of July to a peak of 59/1000 mosquitoes in 2005 and 33/1000 in 2006, and then declined slowly. Viral RNA was detected in 11 of 998 bird sera (1.1%) in 2005 and 3 of 1285 bird sera (<1%) in 2006; 11 of the 14 virus-positive birds were hatch-year birds. Of 540 hatch-year birds, 100 (18.5%) were seropositive in 2005, but only 2.8% (14/493) tested seropositive in 2006 for WNV antibodies using inhibition enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). We observed significant time series cross-correlations between mosquito infection rate and proportion of virus-positive birds, proportion of hatch-year birds captured in mist nets (significant in 2006 only), seroprevalence of hatch-year birds, and number of human cases in both seasons. These associations, coupled with the predominance of WNV infection and seropositivity in hatch-year birds, indicate a key role for hatch-year birds in the amplification of epizootic transmission of WNV, and in increasing human infection risk by facilitating local viral amplification.Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases 02/2008; 8(1):57-67. DOI:10.1089/vbz.2007.0123 · 2.30 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: To investigate arbovirus transmission in North Dakota, we collected and screened mosquitoes for viral infection by Vero cell culture assay. Seven viruses were isolated from 13 mosquito species. Spatial and temporal distributions of the important vectors of West Nile virus (WNV), Cache Valley virus, Jamestown Canyon virus (JCV), and trivittatus virus are reported. Snowshoe hare virus, Potosi virus, and western equine encephalomyelitis virus were also isolated. The risks of Culex tarsalis and Aedes vexans transmitting WNV to humans were 61.4% and 34.0% in 2003-2006, respectively, but in 2003 when the largest epidemic was reported, risks for Ae. vexans and Cx. tarsalis in Cass County were 73.6% and 23.9%, respectively. Risk of humans acquiring an infectious bite was greatest from about the second week of July through most of August. West Nile virus sequences were of the WN02 genotype. Most JCV strains belonged to a single clade of genetically related strains. Cache Valley virus and JCV were prevalent during August and early September and during July and August, respectively. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.The American journal of tropical medicine and hygiene 12/2014; 92(2). DOI:10.4269/ajtmh.14-0291 · 2.70 Impact Factor
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