Discovery and SAR of a novel series of GIRK1/2 and GIRK1/4 activators.
ABSTRACT This Letter describes a novel series of GIRK activators identified through an HTS campaign. The HTS lead was a potent and efficacious dual GIRK1/2 and GIRK1/4 activator. Further chemical optimization through both iterative parallel synthesis and fragment library efforts identified dual GIRK1/2 and GIRK1/4 activators as well as the first examples of selective GIRK1/4 activators. Importantly, these compounds were inactive on GIRK2 and other non-GIRK1 containing GIRK channels, and SAR proved shallow.
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ABSTRACT: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease characterized by cognitive decline, brain atrophy due to neuronal and synapse loss, and formation of two pathological lesions: extracellular amyloid plaques, composed largely of amyloid-beta peptide (Aβ), and neurofibrillary tangles formed by intracellular aggregates of hyperphosphorylated tau protein. Lesions mainly accumulate in brain regions that modulate cognitive functions such as the hippocampus, septum or amygdala. These brain structures have dense reciprocal glutamatergic, cholinergic, and GABAergic connections and their relationships directly affect learning and memory processes, so they have been proposed as highly susceptible regions to suffer damage by Aβ during AD course. Last findings support the emerging concept that soluble Aβ peptides, inducing an initial stage of synaptic dysfunction which probably starts 20-30 years before the clinical onset of AD, can perturb the excitatory-inhibitory balance of neural circuitries. In turn, neurotransmission imbalance will result in altered network activity that might be responsible of cognitive deficits in AD. Therefore, Aβ interactions on neurotransmission systems in memory-related brain regions such as amygdaloid complex, medial septum or hippocampus are critical in cognitive functions and appear as a pivotal target for drug design to improve learning and dysfunctions that manifest with age. Since treatments based on glutamatergic and cholinergic pharmacology in AD have shown limited success, therapies combining modulators of different neurotransmission systems including recent findings regarding the GABAergic system, emerge as a more useful tool for the treatment, and overall prevention, of this dementia. In this review, focused on inhibitory systems, we will analyze pharmacological strategies to compensate neurotransmission imbalance that might be considered as potential therapeutic interventions in AD.Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience 01/2014; 8:167. · 4.18 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: G protein-dependent signaling pathways control the activity of excitable cells of the nervous system and heart, and are the targets of neurotransmitters, clinically relevant drugs, and drugs of abuse. G protein-gated inwardly rectifying potassium (K(+)) (Girk/Kir3) channels are a key effector in inhibitory signaling pathways. Girk-dependent signaling contributes to nociception and analgesia, reward-related behavior, mood, cognition, and heart-rate regulation, and has been linked to epilepsy, Down syndrome, addiction, and arrhythmias. We discuss recent advances in our understanding of Girk channel structure, organization in signaling complexes, and plasticity, as well as progress on the development of subunit-selective Girk modulators. These findings offer new hope for the selective manipulation of Girk channels to treat a variety of debilitating afflictions.Trends in Neurosciences 11/2013; · 12.90 Impact Factor