Article

Epigenetic silencing of RASSF1A deregulates cytoskeleton and promotes malignant behavior of adrenocortical carcinoma

Molecular Cancer (Impact Factor: 5.4). 08/2013; 12(1):87. DOI: 10.1186/1476-4598-12-87
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) is a rare endocrine malignancy with high mutational heterogeneity and a generally poor clinical outcome. Despite implicated roles of deregulated TP53, IGF-2 and Wnt signaling pathways, a clear genetic association or unique mutational link to the disease is still missing. Recent studies suggest a crucial role for epigenetic modifications in the genesis and/or progression of ACC. This study specifically evaluates the potential role of epigenetic silencing of RASSF1A, the most commonly silenced tumor suppressor gene, in adrenocortical malignancy.
Using adrenocortical tumor and normal tissue specimens, we show a significant reduction in expression of RASSF1A mRNA and protein in ACC. Methylation-sensitive and -dependent restriction enzyme based PCR assays revealed significant DNA hypermethylation of the RASSF1A promoter, suggesting an epigenetic mechanism for RASSF1A silencing in ACC. Conversely, the RASSF1A promoter methylation profile in benign adrenocortical adenomas (ACAs) was found to be very similar to that found in normal adrenal cortex. Enforced expression of ectopic RASSF1A in the SW-13 ACC cell line reduced the overall malignant behavior of the cells, which included impairment of invasion through the basement membrane, cell motility, and solitary cell survival and growth. On the other hand, expression of RASSF1A/A133S, a loss-of-function mutant form of RASSF1A, failed to elicit similar malignancy-suppressing responses in ACC cells. Moreover, association of RASSF1A with the cytoskeleton in RASSF1A-expressing ACC cells and normal adrenal cortex suggests a role for RASSF1A in modulating microtubule dynamics in the adrenal cortex, and thereby potentially blocking malignant progression.
Downregulation of RASSF1A via promoter hypermethylation may play a role in the malignant progression of adrenocortical carcinoma possibly by abrogating differentiation-promoting RASSF1A- microtubule interactions.

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Available from: Annabelle Fonseca, Mar 08, 2014
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