Relationship of Lipoproteins to Cardiovascular Events The AIM-HIGH Trial (Atherothrombosis Intervention in Metabolic Syndrome With Low HDL/High Triglycerides and Impact on Global Health Outcomes)
ABSTRACT In this secondary analysis of the AIM-HIGH trial, the objectives were to examine the relationship between niacin treatment, lipoproteins, and cardiovascular (CV) outcomes.
During 3-year follow-up in 3,414 patients with established CV disease and low HDL-C, combined niacin + LDL-lowering therapy did not reduce CV events versus LDL-lowering therapy alone.
Subjects taking simvastatin ± ezetimibe were randomized to extended-release (ER) niacin 1500-2000 mg or minimal immediate-release niacin (<150 mg) as placebo at bedtime. LDL-C in both groups was maintained from 40 to 80 mg/dL. Hazard ratios (HR) were estimated by Cox proportional hazards for relationships between lipoproteins and the composite endpoint of CV death, myocardial infarction, acute coronary syndrome, ischemic stroke, or symptom-driven revascularization.
CV outcomes were not associated with ER niacin in any baseline lipoprotein tertile. In a subset of patients in both the highest triglyceride (≥198 mg/dl) and lowest HDL-C (<33 mg/dl) tertiles, ER niacin showed a trend toward benefit (HR=0.74, p=0.073). In-trial LDL-C, nonHDL-C, and TC/HDL-C ratio were positively associated with CV events in the control group, but these relationships were absent in the ER niacin group.
Baseline lipoprotein tertiles did not predict differential benefit or harm with ER niacin added to LDL-lowering therapy, but a small dyslipidemic subgroup may benefit. ER niacin attenuated expected relationships of lipoprotein risk factors with CV events, raising the possibility that nonlipoprotein actions of niacin could impact risk.
Article: Editorial introduction.Current opinion in lipidology 05/2013; DOI:10.1097/MOL.0b013e328361243f · 5.80 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Hypertriglyceridaemia (typical triglyceride level 1.7-5.0 mmol/l) is caused by interactions between many genetic and nongenetic factors, and is a common risk factor for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (CVD). Patients with hypertriglyceridaemia usually present with obesity, insulin resistance, hepatic steatosis, ectopic fat deposition, and diabetes mellitus. Hypertriglyceridaemia reflects the accumulation in plasma of proatherogenic lipoproteins, triglyceride-rich lipoprotein (TRL) remnants, and small, dense LDL particles. Mendelian randomization studies and research on inherited dyslipidaemias, such as type III dysbetalipoproteinaemia, testify that TRLs are causally related to atherosclerotic CVD. Extreme hypertriglyceridaemia (a triglyceride level >20 mmol/l) is rare, often monogenic in aetiology, and frequently causes pancreatitis. Treatment of hypertriglyceridaemia relies on correcting secondary factors and unhealthy lifestyle habits, particularly poor diet and lack of exercise. Pharmacotherapy is indicated for patients with established CVD or individuals at moderate-to-high risk of CVD, primarily those with metabolic syndrome or diabetes. Statins are the cornerstone of treatment, followed by fibrates and n-3 fatty acids, to achieve recommended therapeutic levels of plasma LDL cholesterol, non-HDL cholesterol, and apolipoprotein (apo) B-100. The case for using niacin has been weakened by the results of clinical trials, but needs further investigation. Extreme hypertriglyceridaemia requires strict dietary measures, and patients with a diagnosis of genetic lipoprotein lipase deficiency might benefit from LPL gene replacement therapy. Several therapies for regulating TRL metabolism, including inhibitors of diacylglycerol O-acyltransferase and microsomal triglyceride transfer protein, and apoC-III antisense oligonucleotides, merit further investigation in patients with hypertriglyceridaemia.Nature Reviews Cardiology 09/2013; 10(11). DOI:10.1038/nrcardio.2013.140 · 10.15 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: To investigate the effect of extended-release (ER) niacin on the metabolism of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I) in men with type 2 diabetes mellitus on a background of optimal statin therapy. Twelve men with type 2 diabetes mellitus were recruited for a randomized, crossover design trial. Patients were randomized to rosuvastatin or rosuvastatin plus ER niacin for 12 weeks and then crossed over to the alternate therapy after a 3-week washout period. Metabolic studies were performed at the end of each treatment period. HDL apoA-I kinetics were measured after a standardized liquid mixed meal and a bolus injection of d3-leucine for 96 hours. Compartmental analysis was used to model the data. ER niacin significantly decreased plasma triglyceride, plasma cholesterol, non-HDL cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and apoB (all P<0.05) and significantly increased HDL cholesterol and apoA-I concentrations (P<0.005 and P<0.05, respectively). ER niacin also significantly increased HDL apoA-I pool size (6088±292 versus 5675±305 mg; P<0.001), and this was attributed to a lower HDL apoA-I fractional catabolic rate (0.33±0.01 versus 0.37±0.02 pools/d; P<0.005), with no significant changes in HDL apoA-I production (20.93±0.63 versus 21.72±0.85 mg/kg per day; P=0.28). ER niacin increases HDL apoA-I concentration in statin-treated subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus by lowering apoA-I fractional catabolic rate. The effect on HDL metabolism was independent of the reduction in plasma triglyceride with ER niacin treatment. Whether this finding applies to other dyslipidemic populations remains to be investigated.Arteriosclerosis Thrombosis and Vascular Biology 11/2013; 34(2). DOI:10.1161/ATVBAHA.113.302019 · 5.53 Impact Factor