Short-term overeating results in incomplete energy intake compensation regardless of energy density or macronutrient composition

Pennington Biomedical Research Center, 6400 Perkins Road, Baton Rouge, LA, USA.
Obesity (Impact Factor: 3.73). 01/2014; 22(1). DOI: 10.1002/oby.20587
Source: PubMed


To evaluate the effects of overeating (140% of energy requirements) a high-fat low-energy density diet (HF/LED, 1.05kcal/g), high-fat high-energy density diet (HF/HED, 1.60kcal/g), and high-carbohydrate (HC) LED (1.05kcal/g) for 2-days on subsequent 4-day energy intake (EI), activity levels, appetite, and mood.

Design and Methods
Using a randomized cross-over design, energy expenditure and EI were standardized during overeating.

In 20 adults with a mean±SD BMI of 30.7±4.6kg/m2, EI was not suppressed until the second day after overeating and accounted for ~30% of the excess EI. Reductions in EI did not differ among the 3 diets or across days. Overeating had no effect on subsequent energy expenditure but steps/day decreased after the HC/LED and HF/HED. Sleep time was increased after the HF/HED compared to both LEDs. After overeating a HF/HED vs. HF/LED, carbohydrate cravings, hunger, prospective food consumption, and sadness increased and satisfaction, relaxation, and tranquility decreased.

Diet type, time, or their interaction had no impact on compensation over 4 days. No adaptive thermogenesis was observed. The HF/HED vs. HF/LED had detrimental effects on food cravings, appetite, and mood. These results suggest short-term overeating is associated with incomplete compensation.

Download full-text


Available from: John W Apolzan, Aug 13, 2014
1 Follower
20 Reads
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Effects of weight gain induced by controlled overfeeding on physical activity. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 307: E1030–E1037, 2014. First published October 7, 2014; doi:10.1152/ajpendo.00386.2014.—It is unclear whether physical activity changes following long-term overfeeding and in response to different dietary protein intakes. Twenty-five (16 males, 9 females) healthy adults (18–35 yr) with BMI ranging from 19 to 30 kg/m2 enrolled in this inpatient study. In a parallel group design, participants were fed 140% of energy needs, with 5, 15, or 25% of energy from protein, for 56 days. Participants wore an RT3 accelerometer for at least 59 days throughout baseline and during overfeeding and completed 24-h whole room metabolic chamber assessments at baseline and on days 1, 14, and 56 of overfeeding and on day 57, when the baseline energy intake was consumed, to measure percent of time active and spontaneous physical activity (SPA; kcal/day). Changes in activity were also assessed by doubly labeled water (DLW). From accelerometry, vector magnitude (VM), a weight-independent measure of activity, and activity energy expenditure (AEE) increased with weight gain during overfeeding. AEE remained increased after adjusting for changes in body composition. Activity-related energy expenditure (AREE) from DLW and percent activity and SPA in the metabolic chamber increased with overfeeding, but SPA was no longer significant after adjusting for change in body composition. Change in VM and AEE were positively correlated with weight gain; however, change in activity was not affected by protein intake. Overfeeding produces an increase in physical activity and in energy expended in physical activity after adjusting for changes in body composition, suggesting that increased activity in response to weight gain might be one mechanism to support adaptive thermogenesis.
    The American journal of physiology 01/2014; 307:E1030–E1037. DOI:10.1152/ajpendo.00386.2014. · 3.28 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The thyroid hormone (TH) plays a significant role in diverse processes related to growth, development, differentiation, and metabolism. TH signaling modulates energy expenditure through both central and peripheral pathways. At the cellular level, the TH exerts its effects after concerted mechanisms facilitate binding to the TH receptor. In the hypothalamus, signals from a range of metabolic pathways, including appetite, temperature, afferent stimuli via the autonomic nervous system, availability of energy substrates, hormones, and other biologically active molecules, converge to maintain plasma TH at the appropriate level to preserve energy homeostasis. At the tissue level, TH actions on metabolism are controlled by transmembrane transporters, deiodinases, and TH receptors. In the modern environment, humans are susceptible to an energy surplus, which has resulted in an obesity epidemic and, thus, understanding the contribution of the TH to cellular and organism metabolism is increasingly relevant.
    Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 02/2014; 1311(1). DOI:10.1111/nyas.12374 · 4.38 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Purpose of review: To highlight recent research developments relating to the effects of, and interactions between, hormones and diet, as well as underlying mechanisms, on appetite, energy intake and body weight. For this purpose, clinically relevant English language articles were reviewed from October 2012 to April 2014. Recent findings: The mechanisms underlying nutrient-induced energy intake suppression differ between dietary protein and lipid. High-fat, energy-dense diets compromise the satiating effects of gut hormones, and, therefore, promote further overconsumption. These effects are mediated by changes in the signalling in both peripheral and central pathways, and may only be partially reversible by dietary restriction. Additional factors, including probiotics, meal-related factors (e.g., eating speed and frequency), circadian influences and gene polymorphisms, also modify energy intake and eating behaviour. Summary: Research continues to unravel the pathways and mechanisms underlying the nutrient-induced and diet-induced regulation of energy intake, as well as the changes, both peripherally and in the central nervous system, brought about by the consumption of high-fat, energy-dense diets. Much further work is required to translate this knowledge into novel, and effective, approaches for the management and treatment of obesity and associated metabolic disorders.
    Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care 09/2014; 17(5):458-464. DOI:10.1097/MCO.0000000000000078 · 3.99 Impact Factor
Show more