Calcium phosphate cement augmentation after volar locking plating of distal radius fracture significantly increases stability.
ABSTRACT Distal radius fractures represent the most common fractures in adults. Volar locking plating to correct unstable fractures has become increasingly popular. Although reasonable primary reduction is possible in most cases, maintenance of reduction until the fracture is healed is often problematic in osteoporotic bone. To our knowledge, no biomechanical studies have compared the effect of enhancement with biomaterial on two different volar fixed-angle plates.
Human fresh-frozen cadaver pairs of radii were used to simulate an AO/OTA 23-A3 fracture. In a total of four groups (n = 7 for each group), two volar fixed-angle plates (Aptus 2.5 mm locking fracture plate, Medartis, Switzerland and VA-LCP two-column distal radius plate 2.4, volar, Synthes, Switzerland) with or without an additional injection of a biomaterial (Hydroset Injectable HA Bone Substitute, Stryker, Switzerland) into the dorsal comminution zone were used to fix the distal metaphyseal fragment. Each specimen was tested load-controlled under cyclic loading with a servo-hydraulic material testing machine. Displacement, stiffness, dissipated work and failure mode were recorded.
Improved mechanical properties (decreased displacement, increased stiffness, decreased dissipated work) were found in both plates if the biomaterial was additionally injected. Improvement of mechanical parameters after biomaterial injection was more evident in the Synthes plate compared to the Aptus plate. Pushing out of the screws was noticed as a failure mode only in samples lacking supplementary biomaterial.
Injection of a biomaterial into the dorsal comminution zone increases stability after volar locking plating of distal radius fractures in vitro.
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ABSTRACT: Distal radius fracture management in elderly patients remains without consensus regarding the appropriate treatment or anticipated outcome. Forty-one studies that included at least 10 patients with a minimum mean age of 65 years and that were indexed in Medline or Embase were reviewed. Treatment methods included pins and plaster, external fixation, K-wires, bone cement, and open reduction and internal fixation with plates. The methodological quality of each study was evaluated through use of a grading scale. Despite study heterogeneity, higher rates of infection were noted with external fixation and K-wire stabilization. Stratifying patients into low-demand and high-demand groups may improve the management of distal radius fractures in elderly patients. In sedentary patients with low demands, functional outcomes are good despite the presence of deformity. Patients with higher demands may benefit from fracture stabilization with locking volar plates. Volar plating with fixed-angle screws may be particularly suitable for elderly patients who may take longer to heal a fracture, be more susceptible to pin-track infection, and demonstrate earlier tendon irritation leading to rupture.The Journal Of Hand Surgery 04/2008; 33(3):421-9. DOI:10.1016/j.jhsa.2007.12.016 · 1.66 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: With an incidence of about 2-4 per 1,000 residents per year, the distal radial fracture is the most common fracture in the human skeleton. The introduction of fixed-angle plate systems for extension fractures at the radius was evaluated in a prospective study performed at our hospital after selection and acquisition of a new system. The focus of our interest was whether a secondary loss of reduction can be avoided by this plating system. We reviewed 80 patients treated for unstable distal radius fractures using a volar fixed-angle plate. Postoperative management included immediate finger motion, early functional use of the hand, a wrist splint used for 4 weeks and physiotherapy. Standard radiographic and clinical fracture parameters after 12 months (range 12-14 months) were measured and final functional results where assessed. Bone healing had occurred in all patients at the time of follow-up after 1 year. On X-rays taken at the time of follow-up 60 patients (75%) had no radial shortening, 20 patients (25%) had a mean radial shortening of only 1.8 mm (range 1-3 mm) compared to the contralateral side. The radial tilt was on average 22 degrees (range 14 degrees-36 degrees); the volar tilt was on average 6 degrees (range 0 degrees-18 degrees). Comparing the first postoperative X-rays with those taken at final evaluation showed no measureable loss of reduction in the volar or radial tilt. Castaing's score, which includes the radiographic results, yielded a perfect outcome in 30 cases, a good outcome in 49 cases and an adequate outcome in one case. The range of motion was on average reduced by 21% during extension/flexion, by 11% during radial/ulnar deviation and by 7% in pronation and supination compared to the contralateral side. Grip strength was 65% that of the contralateral side. The mean DASH score was 25 points. Fixed-angle plate osteosynthesis at the distal radius signifies a significant improvement in the treatment of distal radial fractures in terms of restoration of the shape and function of the wrist. The technically simple palmar access, with a low rate of complications, allows exact anatomical reduction of the fracture. The multidirectional fixed-angle system we used provides solid support for the joint surface even in osteoporotic bone and allows simple subchondral placement of screws with sustained retention of the outcome of reduction. Secondary correction loss can be avoided by this procedure. Early mobilisation can be achieved and is recommended.Archives of Orthopaedic and Trauma Surgery 03/2009; 129(5):661-9. DOI:10.1007/s00402-009-0830-z · 1.36 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The increasing number of fixed-angle plate systems used to treat distal radius fractures carries with it the problem of determining the optimal fixation for unstable fractures. Our goal was to analyze the clinical and radiological outcomes of patients with displaced, unstable distal radius fractures treated with a palmar fixed-angle plate. Prospective protocol; multicenter clinical study; retrospective analysis. Level 1 university trauma centers. Over a mean 15-month period (range, 12 to 27 months), 141 consecutive patients were treated for an unstable dorsally displaced distal radius fracture of which 114 or 81% were followed for 1 year or longer. Open reduction and palmar internal fixation with a fixed-angle plate (2.4 mm LCP Distal Radius Plates; Synthes, Salzburg, Austria). Indication for surgical treatment was the inability to obtain or maintain fracture or articular alignment after initial closed reduction. In a follow-up period, which had to be longer than 12 months, objective and subjective functional results (active range of motion; strength; Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand (DASH) score; visual analog scale (VAS); Green and O'Brien Score) and radiographic assessment (palmar tilt, radial inclination, ulnar variance, fracture union) were assessed. Potentials for complications were given special attention. In the 114 patients followed for a minimum of 12 months, there were 21 men and 93 women with a mean age of 57 years (17 to 79 years). Fractures were classified according to the AO/ASIF classification system as type A2 (n = 39), A3 (n = 16), C1 (n = 24), C2 (n = 30), or C3 (n = 5). The modified Green and O'Brien Score revealed 31 excellent, 54 good, 23 fair, and 6 poor results. Active wrist motion averaged 54 degrees extension (82% as compared with the uninjured side) and 46 degrees flexion (72% as compared with the uninjured side). The average pronation was 81 degrees (95% as compared with the uninjured side), and the average supination was 82 degrees (95% as compared with the uninjured side). Mean grip strength at final follow-up was 70% of the uninjured side. Low residual pain values in the wrist were demonstrated: 81 patients (71%) were pain free, 17 patients (15%) had mild pain, 10 patients (9%) had moderate pain, and 6 patients (5%) had severe pain. The DASH score averaged 13 points (range, 0 to 39 points). Fracture union was achieved in all patients. A mean loss of palmar tilt of 3.4 degrees (range, 0 to 8 degrees), radial inclination of 0.4 degrees (range 0 to 2 degrees), and of the ulnar variance of 1.2 mm (range, 0 to 6 mm) was measured. The overall complication rate was 27% (31/114). The most frequent problems were flexor and extensor tendon irritation (57% of the total number of complications), including 2 ruptures of the flexor pollicis longus tendon, 2 ruptures of the extensor pollicis longus tendon, 4 cases of extensor tendon tenosynovitis, and 9 cases of flexor tendon tenosynovitis. Carpal tunnel syndrome was observed in 3 patients, and complex regional pain syndrome occurred in 5 patients. In 2 cases, loosening of a single screw was seen. Delayed fracture union occurred in 3 patients, and intraoperative intraarticular screw displacement was recognized in 1 patient. Neither clinical outcome nor complication rate were dependent on fracture type (intraarticular versus extraarticular). Fixation of unstable dorsally displaced distal radius fractures with a fixed angle plate provides sufficient stability with minimal loss of reduction. Nevertheless, very distal palmar plate position can interfere with the flexor tendon system, too long screws can penetrate the extensor compartments, and distal screws in comminuted fracture patterns can cut through the subchondral bone and penetrate into the radiocarpal joint. Mindful of these problems, we consider that the complex fracture pattern of an unstable distal radius fracture cannot be treated by a single plate system and approach.Journal of Orthopaedic Trauma 06/2007; 21(5):316-22. DOI:10.1097/BOT.0b013e318059b993 · 1.54 Impact Factor