Analysis of Lignin Aromatic Structure in Wood Based on the IR Spectrum
ABSTRACT A total of 17 softwoods and 48 hardwoods were analyzed by IR spectroscopy to examine if syringyl ratio (syringyl/(syringyl+guaiacyl)) calculated from nitrobenzene oxidation products can be precisely expressed by area ratios of characteristic peaks of lignin in IR spectrum. Area ratio of two peaks is referred to as that of two wavenumber domains, represented by “wavenumber 1/ wavenumber 2.” Examined peak area ratios were 1595/1509, 1509/1460, 1275/1220, 1130/1032, and 835/(855+815). Among these ratios, log(1595/1509) and log(1275/1220) showed significant linear relationship with the syringyl ratios with a correlation coefficient of 0.98 for all 65 woods. These two ratios could also be used to distinguish all the hardwoods from the softwoods.
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ABSTRACT: In order to rapidly and efficiently screen potential biofuel feedstock candidates for quintessential traits, robust high-throughput analytical techniques must be developed and honed. The traditional methods of measuring lignin syringyl/guaiacyl (S/G) ratio can be laborious, involve hazardous reagents, and/or be destructive. Vibrational spectroscopy can furnish high-throughput instrumentation without the limitations of the traditional techniques. Spectral data from mid-infrared, near-infrared, and Raman spectroscopies was combined with S/G ratios, obtained using pyrolysis molecular beam mass spectrometry, from 245 different eucalypt and Acacia trees across 17 species. Iterations of spectral processing allowed the assembly of robust predictive models using partial least squares (PLS).Biotechnology for Biofuels 01/2014; 7:93. DOI:10.1186/1754-6834-7-93 · 6.22 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Lignin, the main natural aromatic polymer was always aroused researchers interest. Currently around 90% of this biomaterial is burned for energy. It has a very complex and complicated structure which depends on the separation method and plant species, what determine difficulties to use as a raw material widely. This research presents a physical method to modify lignin by ultrasonic irradiation in order to obtain nanoparticles. The nanoparticles synthesized were dimensionally and morphologically characterized. At the same time the preoccupations were to determine the structural and compositional changes that occurred after sonication. To achieve this, two types of commercial lignins (wheat straw and Sarkanda grass) were used and the modifications were analyzed by FTIR-spectroscopy, GPC-chromatography, (31)P-NMR-spectroscopy and HSQC0. The results confirm that the compositional and structural changes of nanoparticles obtained are not significantly modified at the intensity applied but depend on the nature of lignin.Ultrasonics Sonochemistry 09/2014; DOI:10.1016/j.ultsonch.2014.08.021 · 3.82 Impact Factor