Analysis of Lignin Aromatic Structure in Wood Based on the IR Spectrum
ABSTRACT A total of 17 softwoods and 48 hardwoods were analyzed by IR spectroscopy to examine if syringyl ratio (syringyl/(syringyl+guaiacyl)) calculated from nitrobenzene oxidation products can be precisely expressed by area ratios of characteristic peaks of lignin in IR spectrum. Area ratio of two peaks is referred to as that of two wavenumber domains, represented by “wavenumber 1/ wavenumber 2.” Examined peak area ratios were 1595/1509, 1509/1460, 1275/1220, 1130/1032, and 835/(855+815). Among these ratios, log(1595/1509) and log(1275/1220) showed significant linear relationship with the syringyl ratios with a correlation coefficient of 0.98 for all 65 woods. These two ratios could also be used to distinguish all the hardwoods from the softwoods.
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ABSTRACT: As the attraction of creating biofuels and bio-based chemicals from lignocellulosic biomass has increased, researchers have been challenged with developing a better understanding of lignin structure, quantity and potential uses. Lignin has frequently been considered a waste-product from the deconstruction of plant cell walls, in attempts to isolate polysaccharides that can be hydrolyzed and fermented into fuel or other valuable commodities. In order to develop useful applications for lignin, accurate analytical instrumentation and methodologies are required to qualitatively and quantitatively assess, for example, what the structure of lignin looks like or how much lignin comprises a specific feedstock׳s cellular composition. During the past decade, various diverse strategies have been employed to elucidate the structure and composition of lignin. These techniques include using two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance to resolve overlapping spectral data, measuring biomass with vibrational spectroscopy to enable modeling of lignin content or monomeric ratios, methods to probe and quantify the linkages between lignin and polysaccharides, or refinements of established methods to provide higher throughput analyses, less use of consumables, etc. This review seeks to provide a comprehensive overview of many of the advancements achieved in evaluating key lignin attributes. Emphasis is placed on research endeavored in the last decade.Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 09/2015; 49. DOI:10.1016/j.rser.2015.04.091 · 5.51 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Lignin, the main natural aromatic polymer was always aroused researchers interest. Currently around 90% of this biomaterial is burned for energy. It has a very complex and complicated structure which depends on the separation method and plant species, what determine difficulties to use as a raw material widely. This research presents a physical method to modify lignin by ultrasonic irradiation in order to obtain nanoparticles. The nanoparticles synthesized were dimensionally and morphologically characterized. At the same time the preoccupations were to determine the structural and compositional changes that occurred after sonication. To achieve this, two types of commercial lignins (wheat straw and Sarkanda grass) were used and the modifications were analyzed by FTIR-spectroscopy, GPC-chromatography, (31)P-NMR-spectroscopy and HSQC0. The results confirm that the compositional and structural changes of nanoparticles obtained are not significantly modified at the intensity applied but depend on the nature of lignin.Ultrasonics Sonochemistry 09/2014; 23. DOI:10.1016/j.ultsonch.2014.08.021 · 3.82 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Lignin is the most abundant aromatic plant polymer on earth. Useful information on its structure and interactions is gained by vibrational spectroscopy and relies on the quality of band assignments. B3LYP predictions were recently shown to support band assignments. Further progress calls for a comprehensive study of the quality of available theoretical methods in relation to the task of predicting lignin vibrational properties. The present study examined more than 50 functionals for prediction of IR vibrations of an appropriate lignin model. Based on a basis set incompleteness study, the pc-2 basis set was used. B98, X3LYP and B97-1 were the overall best-performing functionals, and “fingerprint” band positions were predicted by single-factor scaling of harmonic frequencies to an average error of ±3 cm−1 by optimized scaling factors of 1.017, 1.021 and 1.016, respectively. Their performance using instead explicit anharmonic correction was slightly worse giving an error of ca. ±5 cm−1. The X3LYP and B97-1 functionals offer also good description of hydrogen bonding. Error compensation from, e.g., insufficient treatment of solvation is likely to affect these results, and thus at this stage no single functional stands out. These results provide a needed basis for further theoretical developments in relation to vibrational assignments of Infrared and Raman spectra of lignin.Theoretical Chemistry Accounts 03/2015; 134(3). DOI:10.1007/s00214-015-1638-2 · 2.14 Impact Factor