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Tochukaso (Semitake and others), Cordyceps species

Food Reviews International (Impact Factor: 2.54). 02/1995; 11(1):231-234. DOI: 10.1080/87559129509541038
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    ABSTRACT: The Chinese herbal drug DongChongXiaCao, a medicinal and edible mushroom originating from the fungus Cordyceps sp., has been developed into health foods. Counterfeit and mimic types are frequently found in markets. Mycelial preparations of Cordyceps sinensis, via submerged fermentation, have been commercialized and also named DongChongXiaCao. This investigation endeavours to characterize the proximate composition, amino acid profiles, and contents of the bioactive ingredients, including adenosine and cordycepin. The total levels of amino acids were significantly different, ranging from 4 to 17%. Glutamic acid and aspartic acid were the two main amino acids in all samples tested; however, there was a third major amino acid. The level of total amino acids in the mycelium was only half that in the natural DongChongXiaCao. The bioactive ingredients adenosine and cordycepin did not exist in the counterfeit and mimic types. Adenosine was abundant in the fruiting body, amounting to considerably more than in the corpus of the natural DongChongXiaCao and the mycelium of C. sinensis. Trace levels of cordycepin were found in all the Cordyceps preparations. These findings suggest that adenosine and cordycepin might be used as indexing ingredients for differentiating Cordyceps from the counterfeit and the mimic.
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    ABSTRACT: A method for distinguishing isolates of the fungi belonging to genus Cordyceps, used as food/medicine in Eastern Asia, was developed. A PCR-single stranded conformation polymorphism-based profile was applied and established on the ITS2 region of rDNA for molecular typing in 48 different isolates of Cordyceps species. Compared with the DNA sequencing data and secondary structure prediction of single strand DNA, the method used was sensitive and could distinguish between two closely related species in the genus Cordyceps. This method could be very useful for confirming the identity of a specific strain of Cordyceps for researchers and food companies that produce the fermented Cordyceps products as a quality control method.
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    ABSTRACT: Nutritional compositions of three Tochukaso species (Paecilomyces tenuipes hosted by Larva and pupa, Cordyceps militaris, C. sinensis) were compared. Fruiting body and host fractions were separately analyzed. Fruiting body fraction of P. tenuipes (36.6%) hosted by larva was higher than that hosted by pupa (10.2%), an indication that the quality of the former is superior to the latter. Carbohydrate content of C. sinensis (39.6%) was times higher than those of others, probably due to the presence of polysaccharides. Protein and crude lipid contents of C. sinensis and C. militaris were 25.8 and 10.3%, and 75.1 and 3.9%, respectively. C. sinensis showed the lowest Ca content and times higher Fe content among the samples tested. Vitamin A content of C. militaris was 308.9 IU/100g, two fold higher than those of the other species. Saturated fatty acid content was the highest in P. tenuipes (pupa, 27.7%), whereas unsaturated fatty acid was the highest in P. tenuipes (larva, 83.3%). Aspartic acid, glutamic acid, and glycine were abundant in all species. Cordycepin content of C. militaris was times higher than those of the other species.
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