Alcohol Brand Use and Injury in the Emergency Department: A Pilot Study
ABSTRACT In an urban emergency department on weekend nights in 2010 and 2011, 105 interviews assessed feasibility of collecting alcohol brand consumption data from injured patients who drank within 6 h of presentation, with responses to the orally administered survey specifying 331 alcohol brands recorded on a netbook computer. A Kruskal-Wallis test adjusted for tied ranks assessed demographic differences; confidence intervals were created around comparisons with national brand shares. The study found collection of such information feasible; limitations include comparison of national brand market share data with a local sample of drinkers. Funding was provided by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.
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ABSTRACT: The consumption of alcohol mixed with energy drinks (AmED) is popular on college campuses in the United States. Limited research suggests that energy drink consumption lessens subjective intoxication in persons who also have consumed alcohol. This study examines the relationship between energy drink use, high-risk drinking behavior, and alcohol-related consequences. In Fall 2006, a Web-based survey was conducted in a stratified random sample of 4,271 college students from 10 universities in North Carolina. A total of 697 students (24% of past 30-day drinkers) reported consuming AmED in the past 30 days. Students who were male, white, intramural athletes, fraternity or sorority members or pledges, and younger were significantly more likely to consume AmED. In multivariable analyses, consumption of AmED was associated with increased heavy episodic drinking (6.4 days vs. 3.4 days on average; p < 0.001) and twice as many episodes of weekly drunkenness (1.4 days/week vs. 0.73 days/week; p < 0.001). Students who reported consuming AmED had significantly higher prevalence of alcohol-related consequences, including being taken advantage of sexually, taking advantage of another sexually, riding with an intoxicated driver, being physically hurt or injured, and requiring medical treatment (p < 0.05). The effect of consuming AmED on driving while intoxicated depended on a student's reported typical alcohol consumption (interaction p = 0.027). Almost one-quarter of college student current drinkers reported mixing alcohol with energy drinks. These students are at increased risk for alcohol-related consequences, even after adjusting for the amount of alcohol consumed. Further research is necessary to understand this association and to develop targeted interventions to reduce risk.Academic Emergency Medicine 05/2008; 15(5):453-60. DOI:10.1111/j.1553-2712.2008.00085.x · 2.20 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Ingesting alcohol and energy drinks together is associated with a decreased awareness of the physical and mental impairment caused by the alcohol without reducing the actual impairment. This is of particular concern for youth who have a baseline of less mature judgment. Adding energy drinks to alcohol tends to increase the rate of absorption through its carbonation and dilution of the alcohol, and keep a person awake longer allowing ingestion of a greater volume of alcohol. At low blood alcohol levels, caffeine appears to decrease some of the impairment from the alcohol, but at higher blood alcohol levels, caffeine does not appear to have a modifying effect on either the physical or mental impairment induced by the alcohol. Obtaining this combination is made easier and more affordable for under aged persons by manufacturers of premixed alcoholic energy drink combination beverages. Awareness by medical and educational personnel and parents of this activity and its potential for harm is unknown.The Journal of the American Board of Family Medicine 07/2010; 23(4):555-8. DOI:10.3122/jabfm.2010.04.090261 · 1.85 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: We describe a case series of emergency department (ED) visits for intoxication related to the use of the caffeinated alcoholic beverage Four Loko. Medical records from the 4-month period July to November 2010 were hand searched for key words such as "intoxicated," "caffeinated," "Four Loko," "alcohol," and "EtOH." Patients were included if they were younger than 25 years. Eleven cases were included. Eight (72.7%) patients presented during October 2010. The median age was 16.4 years; 90.9% were under the legal drinking age of 21 years. Seven (63.6 %) were male patients. All arrived by emergency medical services (EMS). Four patients (36.3%) were found in high-risk settings, with altered mental status on subway tracks, in public buildings, or parks after dark. Two patients had blood alcohol concentrations greater than 200 mg/dL. Six patients (54.5%) had emesis. Two patients (18.2%) were admitted to hospital, 1 each because of seizures and persistent tachycardia. Patients intoxicated with Four Loko were younger than the legal drinking age, found in high-risk situations, and often admitted to the hospital. Many of these patients used EMS and resources in the ED for alleviation of adverse effects of Four Loko.Annals of emergency medicine 08/2011; 59(1):67-9. DOI:10.1016/j.annemergmed.2011.06.015 · 4.33 Impact Factor