Clinical problem-solving. Weak in the knees.
- SourceAvailable from: Radu Tanasescu[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: paraneoplastic neurological syndromes (PNS) almost invariably predate detection of the malignancy. Screening for tumours is important in PNS as the tumour directly affects prognosis and treatment and should be performed as soon as possible. an overview of the screening of tumours related to classical PNS is given. Small cell lung cancer, thymoma, breast cancer, ovarian carcinoma and teratoma and testicular tumours are described in relation to paraneoplastic limbic encephalitis, subacute sensory neuronopathy, subacute autonomic neuropathy, paraneoplastic cerebellar degeneration, paraneoplastic opsoclonus-myoclonus, Lambert-Eaton myasthenic syndrome (LEMS), myasthenia gravis and paraneoplastic peripheral nerve hyperexcitability. many studies with class IV evidence were available; one study reached level III evidence. No evidence-based recommendations grade A-C were possible, but good practice points were agreed by consensus. the nature of antibody, and to a lesser extent the clinical syndrome, determines the risk and type of an underlying malignancy. For screening of the thoracic region, a CT-thorax is recommended, which if negative is followed by fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography (FDG-PET). Breast cancer is screened for by mammography, followed by MRI. For the pelvic region, ultrasound (US) is the investigation of first choice followed by CT. Dermatomyositis patients should have CT-thorax/abdomen, US of the pelvic region and mammography in women, US of testes in men under 50 years and colonoscopy in men and women over 50. If primary screening is negative, repeat screening after 3-6 months and screen every 6 months up till 4 years. In LEMS, screening for 2 years is sufficient. In syndromes where only a subgroup of patients have a malignancy, tumour markers have additional value to predict a probable malignancy.European Journal of Neurology 09/2010; 18(1):19-e3. DOI:10.1111/j.1468-1331.2010.03220.x · 3.85 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Lambert-Eaton myasthenic syndrome (LEMS) is a neuromuscular autoimmune disease that has served as a model for autoimmunity and tumour immunology. In LEMS, the characteristic muscle weakness is thought to be caused by pathogenic autoantibodies directed against voltage-gated calcium channels (VGCC) present on the presynaptic nerve terminal. Half of patients with LEMS have an associated tumour, small-cell lung carcinoma (SCLC), which also expresses functional VGCC. Knowledge of this association led to the discovery of a wide range of paraneoplastic and non-tumour-related neurological disorders of the peripheral and central nervous systems. Detailed clinical studies have improved our diagnostic skills and knowledge of the pathophysiological mechanisms and association of LEMS with SCLC, and have helped with the development of a protocol for early tumour detection.The Lancet Neurology 12/2011; 10(12):1098-107. DOI:10.1016/S1474-4422(11)70245-9 · 21.82 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The rarity and heterogeneity of the idiopathic inflammatory myopathies (IIM), and the few validated assessment tools available, have limited information to guide the management of patients with polymyositis, dermatomyositis or inclusion body myositis. In light of the need for such tools, the International Myositis Assessment and Clinical Studies Group (IMACS) was formed as a multidisciplinary consortium of rheumatologists, neurologists, dermatologists, physiatrists and other myositis experts to develop consensus and standards for the conduct and reporting of myositis studies, and to facilitate myositis research. IMACS has developed consensus core set measures of disease activity, disease damage and patient-reported outcomes, and compiled a preliminary definition of improvement. The IMACS tools assist in the evaluation of the extent of disease activity and damage, although other approaches--including key clinical features, laboratory tests, muscle T1 and short τ inversion recovery MRI and immunological markers--are also helpful. Clinical remission is a realistic objective for most patients and should be pursued aggressively to optimise outcomes. Physical therapy and rehabilitation should be applied early and consistently to achieve optimal strength and function. Treatments that have been developed for other immune-mediated diseases are also being used and tested in the IIM, and some have shown anecdotal evidence of benefit. Recent advances in understanding the pathogenesis of myositis, development of assessments and treatments for other diseases that can be applied to myositis, and international collaborations and consensus standards for evaluating the IIM, all promise improvements in the assessment and treatment of myositis in the future.Annals of the rheumatic diseases 04/2012; 71 Suppl 2:i82-5. DOI:10.1136/annrheumdis-2011-200587 · 9.27 Impact Factor