Lenalidomide plus Dexamethasone for High-Risk Smoldering Multiple Myeloma
ABSTRACT For patients with smoldering multiple myeloma, the standard of care is observation until symptoms develop. However, this approach does not identify high-risk patients who may benefit from early intervention.
In this randomized, open-label, phase 3 trial, we randomly assigned 119 patients with high-risk smoldering myeloma to treatment or observation. Patients in the treatment group received an induction regimen (lenalidomide at a dose of 25 mg per day on days 1 to 21, plus dexamethasone at a dose of 20 mg per day on days 1 to 4 and days 12 to 15, at 4-week intervals for nine cycles), followed by a maintenance regimen (lenalidomide at a dose of 10 mg per day on days 1 to 21 of each 28-day cycle for 2 years). The primary end point was time to progression to symptomatic disease. Secondary end points were response rate, overall survival, and safety.
After a median follow-up of 40 months, the median time to progression was significantly longer in the treatment group than in the observation group (median not reached vs. 21 months; hazard ratio for progression, 0.18; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.09 to 0.32; P<0.001). The 3-year survival rate was also higher in the treatment group (94% vs. 80%; hazard ratio for death, 0.31; 95% CI, 0.10 to 0.91; P=0.03). A partial response or better was achieved in 79% of patients in the treatment group after the induction phase and in 90% during the maintenance phase. Toxic effects were mainly grade 2 or lower.
Early treatment for patients with high-risk smoldering myeloma delays progression to active disease and increases overall survival. (Funded by Celgene; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00480363.).
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ABSTRACT: Smoldering multiple myeloma (SMM) is an asymptomatic plasma cell disorder characterized by the presence of one or both features of serum M-protein ≥ 30 g/L and bone marrow plasma cell infiltration ≥ 10 %. However, myeloma-related symptomatology is absent from this condition. The risk of progression to active MM is not uniform, and several markers are useful for identifying SMM patients at high risk of progression to active MM. These include the size of the M-protein and the infiltration in the bone marrow, the serum-free light-chain ratio, the presence of immunoparesis and percentage of plasma cell with aberrant phenotype by flow cytometry, or the presence of focal lesions in magnetic resonance imaging. Overall, the presence of these factors identifies patients who have a 50 % probability of progression at 2 years, and the forthcoming challenge will be to identify ultra-high-risk patients who have an 80 % risk of progression at 2 years. The current standard of care is not to treat until progression to symptomatic disease occurs. Several trials of melphalan, thalidomide and bisphosphonates have been conducted in the overall SMM patient population to examine the delay in time to progression (TTP) to symptomatic disease, but these have shown no significant benefit. However, a randomized trial that focused on high-risk SMM patients allocated to receive early treatment with lenalidomide plus dexamethasone versus observation did report a significant benefit with respect to TTP and overall survival. In summary, high-risk SMM patients should be targetted for early treatment, and more so efforts should be made to identify the ultra-high-risk subgroup within the high-risk SMM patient population which may be considered as early MM and thereby candidates for receiving therapy before they develop myeloma-related symptomatology.Current Hematologic Malignancy Reports 08/2013; DOI:10.1007/s11899-013-0174-1 · 2.29 Impact Factor
- Nature Reviews Clinical Oncology 09/2013; DOI:10.1038/nrclinonc.2013.160 · 15.70 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Since smoldering multiple myeloma (SMM) was first described over 3 decades ago based on a case series of 6 patients, its definition and our understanding of the entity have evolved considerably. The risk of progression to symptomatic myeloma (MM) varies greatly among individuals diagnosed with myeloma precursor disease. Epidemiologic, molecular, flow cytometric and radiological techniques have demonstrated that this transformation to MM from precursor states is not sudden but rather a continuous overlapping series of events with evidence of end-organ damage that could manifest in the earliest stages of disease. Contemporary anti-myeloma therapies can yield rapid, deep and durable responses with manageable toxicities and molecular cell based measures are now available to rule out minimal residual disease. With this information, clinical studies with correlative measures can now be developed to test the fundamental hypothesis that intervention in early myeloma may provide a measurable clinical benefit to patients by either delaying progression or eradicating plasma cell clones. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.European Journal Of Haematology 09/2013; 92(1). DOI:10.1111/ejh.12205 · 2.41 Impact Factor