Conventional Pap Smear and Liquid-Based Cytology as Screening Tools in Low-Resource Settings in Latin America
University of Turku, Turku, Varsinais-Suomi, FinlandActa Cytologica - ACTA CYTOL 09/2005; 49(5):500-506. DOI: 10.1159/000326195
Objective To evaluate the performance of the conventional Pap test and liquid-based cytology (LBC) in an ongoing multicenter trial testing optional screening tools (cytology, screening colposcopy, visual inspection with acetic acid, visual inspection with Lugols Iodine, cervicography and Hybrid Capture II [HCII] (Digene Brazil, Sao Paulo, Brazil) conventional and self-sampling), for cervical cancer in Brazil and Argentina. Study Design A cobort of 12,107 women attendingfour clinics (Campinas, Sao Paulo, Porto Alegre, Buenos Aires) were randomized into the 8 diagnostic arms. Women testing positive witb any of the tests were referred for colposcopy, and cervical biopsies were used as the gold standard to assess performance cbaracteristics of the diagnostic tests. Conventional Pap smears were sampled by all clinics (n = 10, 240), and LBC (Autogte (R) PREP, [TriPath Imaging, Burlington, North Carolina, U.S.A.], n = 320, and DNA-Citoliq (R) [Digene Brazil], n=1,346) was performed by 1 of the clinics. Results Conventional Pap smears showed no squamous intraepithelial lesions (normal) in 8,946 (87.4%) and LRC in 1,373 (82.4%). Using high grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSIL) as the cutoff, Pap smears predicted high grade (cervical intraepithelial neoplasia [CIN] 3) with OR 63.0 (95% CI, 36.90-107.70), standard error (SE) 59%, SP 97.8%, positive predictive value (PPV) 68.1% and negative predictive value (NPV) 96.7%. The same figures for Autocyte (R) PREP were: OR 9.0 (95% CI, 2.43-33.24), sensitivity (SE) 33.3%, specificity (SP) 100%, PPV 100% and negative PV (NVP) 88.8%. DNA-Citoliq (R) detected CIN 3 as follows: OR 11.8 (95% CI 2.60-53.26), SE 40.0%, SP 94.6%, PPV40.0% and NPV 94.6%. Lowering the cutoff to low grade squamous intraepithelial lesions increased SE and NPV but compromised SP and PPV. The detection rates for high grade lesions after an atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance diagnosis were similar with the 3 techniques. Conclusion In our settings, the 3 methods of cervical cytology were slightly different in performance. The conventional Pap smear had the highest SE, while Autocyte (R) PREP had 100% SP and PPV in detecting CIN 3 with the HSIL cutoff. All 3 tests had lower SE but higher SP as compared to HCH.
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ABSTRACT: To assess the role of HPV as determinant of the incident cytological abnormalities (SIL) and cervical lesions (CIN) during a 24-month follow-up of baseline PAP smear-negative subgroup of women included in the Latin American Screening study (LAMS). A group of 365 women with normal Pap smear and negative or positive high-risk Hybrid Capture II test were prospectively followed-up for 24 months at Campinas and São Paulo (Brazil). The incidence rate (IR) and risk ratio (RR and 95% CI) of developing cytological or histological abnormality during the follow-up was calculated for HPV-negative and HPV-positive women. During the 12-month follow-up, women HPV-positive at baseline had developed a significantly higher rate of incident LSIL (IR=3.5%, RR=1.4; 95% CI 1.1-1.7) and HSIL (IR=0.7%, RR=1.5; 95% CI 1.4-1.7) abnormality. For HSIL, the IR increased to 2.1% and the RR increased to 1.7 (95% CI 1.5-1.9) among those followed for 24 months. Similarly, women with positive HPV tests were at a higher risk of developing CIN 2-3 (IR=2.6%, RR=1.5; 95% CI 1.4-1.6) during the first 12 months of follow-up, and for those followed for 24 months, this RR increased further to 1.7 (95% CI 1.5-1.9) although the IR was 0.7%. Oncogenic HPV infections comprise a significant risk factor for incident cervical abnormalities, and HPV test is a useful adjunct to cytology in detecting the high-risk patients among baseline PAP smear-negative women.European Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology and Reproductive Biology 09/2007; 133(2):239-46. DOI:10.1016/j.ejogrb.2006.05.012 · 1.70 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: In the last decade, new molecular techniques were introduced into pathology laboratories. Cytology also benefited from the innovations emerging from this new era. Molecular cytopathology (MCP) can be defined as molecular studies applied on all types of cytological specimens, namely gynaecology cytology, exfoliative non- gynaecology cytology and fine needle aspirates. The development of many new ancillary techniques has paralleled the emergence of clinical cytology as a major diagnostic specialty. Clinical applications of these techniques have been growing in the last decade. The widespread acceptance of liquid-based systems in gynaecological cytology emphasises the relation between cells and molecules. The increased use of morphology and molecular biology in human papillomavirus-induced lesions for example, showed the potential to optimise, in one single brushed sample, diagnosis and research. Cytology samples from serous effusions, the pulmonary tree, urine, and aspirations, among others, are now likely to be studied by different molecular techniques for diagnosis, prognosis, or even assessment of therapeutic targets. In this review, the main published results concerning the application of molecular techniques in different fields of cytopathology are highlighted, and their applications discussed.Journal of clinical pathology 04/2008; 61(3):258-67. DOI:10.1136/jcp.2006.044347 · 2.92 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Drug abuse (addiction) has been listed among the risk factors for human papillomavirus (HPV) infections, but no case-control studies exist to rule out sexual behaviour and other potential confounders. The aim of this study is to evaluate the role of drug addiction as an independent predictor of HR-HPV infections and (cervical intraepithelial neoplasia) CIN2+ in an age-matched case-control (1:4) study nested within the prospective Latin American Screening (LAMS) study cohort. All 109 women in the LAMS cohort (n=12,114) reporting drug abuse/addiction were matched with four controls (n = 436) of non-abusers strictly by age. Conditional logistic regression analysis was used to estimate the co-variates of drug abuse, and the whole series (n=545) was analysed for predictors of HR-HPV and CIN2+ using univariate and multivariate regression models. Oncogenic HPV infections were significantly (P=0.019) more prevalent among abusers (37.7%) than in controls (21.9%), but there was no difference in high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (P=0.180) or CIN2+ lesions (P=0.201). In multivariate conditional logistic regression, number of lifetime sexual partners (P=0.0001), ever smokers (P=0.0001), non-use of OCs (P=0.013), ever having sexually transmitted diseases (STD) (P=0.041) and no previous Pap smear (P=0.027) were independent co-variates of drug addiction. Drug abuse was not an independent risk factor of high-risk (HR)-HPV infection, which was significantly predicted by (1) age below 30 years (P=0.045), (2) more than five lifetime sexual partners (P=0.046) and (3) being current smoker (P=0.0001). In multivariate model, only HR-HPV infection was an independent risk factor of CIN2+ (P=0.031), with adjusted OR=11.33 (95% CI 1.25-102.50). These data indicate that drug addiction is not an independent risk factor of either HR-HPV infections or CIN2+, but the increased prevalence of HR-HPV infections is explained by the high-risk sexual behaviour and smoking habits of these women.International Journal of STD & AIDS 05/2008; 19(4):251-8. DOI:10.1258/ijsa.2007.007179 · 1.05 Impact Factor
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