Performance Analysis of PMIPv6Based NEtwork MObility for Intelligent Transportation Systems
ABSTRACT While host mobility support for individual mobile hosts (MHs) has been widely investigated and developed over the past years, there has been relatively less attention to NEtwork MObility (NEMO). Since NEMO Basic Support (NEMO-BS) was developed, it has been the central pillar in Intelligent Transport Systems (ITS) communication architectures for maintaining the vehicle's Internet connectivity. As the vehicle moves around, it attaches to a new access network and is required to register a new address obtained from the new access network to a home agent (HA). This location update of NEMO-BS often results in unacceptable long handover latency and increased traffic load to the vehicle. To address these issues, in this paper, we introduce new NEMO support protocols, which rely on mobility service provisioning entities introduced in Proxy Mobile IPv6 (PMIPv6), as possible mobility support protocols for ITS. As a base protocol, we present PMIPv6-based NEMO (P-NEMO) to maintain the vehicle's Internet connectivity while moving and without participating in the location update management. In P-NEMO, the mobility management for the vehicle is supported by mobility service provisioning entities residing in a given PMIPv6 domain. To further improve handover performance, fast P-NEMO (FP-NEMO) has been developed as an extension protocol. FP-NEMO utilizes wireless L2 events to anticipate the vehicle's handovers. The mobility service provisioning entities prepare the vehicle's handover prior to the attachment of the vehicle to the new access network. Detailed handover procedures for P-NEMO and FP-NEMO are provided, and handover timing diagrams are presented to evaluate the performance of the proposed protocols. P-NEMO and FP-NEMO are compared with NEMO-BS in terms of traffic cost and handover latency.
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ABSTRACT: Vehicular communications networks are envisioned for the access to drive-thru Internet and IP-based infotainment applications. These services are supported by roadside access routers (ARs) that connect vehicular ad hoc networks (VANETs) to external IP networks. However, VANETs suffer from asymmetric links due to variable transmission ranges caused by mobility, obstacles, and dissimilar transmission power, which make it difficult to maintain the bidirectional connections and to provide the IP mobility required by most IP applications. Moreover, vehicular mobility results in short-lived connections to the AR, affecting the availability of IP services in VANETs. In this paper, we study the secure and timely handover of IP services in an asymmetric VANET and propose a multihop-authenticated Proxy Mobile IP (MA-PMIP) scheme. MA-PMIP provides an enhanced IP mobility scheme over infrastructure-to-vehicle-to-vehicle (I2V2V) communications that uses location and road traffic information. The MA-PMIP also reacts, depending on the bidirectionality of links, to improve availability of IP services. Moreover, our scheme ensures that the handover signaling is authenticated when V2V paths are employed to reach the infrastructure so that possible attacks are mitigated without affecting the performance of the ongoing sessions. Both analysis and extensive simulations in OMNeT++ are conducted, and the results demonstrate that the MA-PMIP improves service availability and provides secure seamless access to IP applications in asymmetric VANETs.IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology 01/2013; 62(7):3271-3286. · 2.06 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Vehicular communication networks, such as the 802.11p and Wireless Access in Vehicular Environments (WAVE) technologies, are becoming a fundamental platform for providing real-time access to safety and entertainment information. In particular, infotainment applications and, consequently, IP-based communications, are key to leverage market penetration and deployment costs of the 802.11p/WAVE network. However, the operation and performance of IP in 802.11p/WAVE are still unclear as the WAVE standard guidelines for being IP compliant are rather minimal. This paper studies the 802.11p/WAVE standard and its limitations for the support of infrastructure-based IP applications, and proposes the Vehicular IP in WAVE (VIP-WAVE) framework. VIP-WAVE defines the IP configuration for extended and non-extended IP services, and a mobility management scheme supported by Proxy Mobile IPv6 over WAVE. It also exploits multi-hop communications to improve the network performance along roads with different levels of infrastructure presence. Furthermore, an analytical model considering mobility, handoff delays, collisions, and channel conditions is developed for evaluating the performance of IP communications in WAVE. Extensive simulations are performed to demonstrate the accuracy of our analytical model and the effectiveness of VIP-WAVE in making feasible the deployment of IP applications in the vehicular network.IEEE Transactions on Intelligent Transportation Systems 01/2013; 14(1):82-97. · 3.06 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: To maintain the Internet connectivity of a group of nodes in intelligent transportation systems (ITSs), the network mobility basic support (NEMO BS) protocol was standardized. The NEMO BS provides mobility for mobile network nodes (MNNs) in a moving network through a mobile router (MR). Since packet loss in NEMO dramatically increases during a handover as the number of MNNs increases, Mobile IPv6 fast handovers (FMIPv6) was adopted to reduce packet loss and handover latency. However, since FMIPv6 was originally designed for a single mobile node (MN), FMIPv6 based on NEMO (fNEMO) incurs a high tunneling burden on the link between the previous and new access routers (PAR and NAR, respectively). In this paper, we propose an enhanced fNEMO (EfNEMO) as an efficient fast handover scheme that significantly mitigates the tunneling burden and handover latency. In particular, EfNEMO performs a tentative binding update (BU) procedure to register a new care-of address (NCoA) for the MR with the MR's home agent (HA) before the layer-2 handover. Consequently, EfNEMO delivers packets destined for MNNs via various paths between the HA and the NAR without any tunneling. Furthermore, EfNEMO reduces handover latency because it performs the registration to the HA in advance. By establishing an analytical model for the proposed EfNEMO, we investigate the handover performance of NEMO, fNEMO, and EfNEMO. In addition, we compare EfNEMO with NEMO and fNEMO in terms of the overall cost and the handover latency. Simulation is also performed to compare in a more realistic environment. The results of analysis and simulation show that EfNEMO significantly outperforms fNEMO and NEMO.IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology 01/2014; 63(1):357-371. · 2.06 Impact Factor