Performance Analysis of PMIPv6Based NEtwork MObility for Intelligent Transportation Systems
ABSTRACT While host mobility support for individual mobile hosts (MHs) has been widely investigated and developed over the past years, there has been relatively less attention to NEtwork MObility (NEMO). Since NEMO Basic Support (NEMO-BS) was developed, it has been the central pillar in Intelligent Transport Systems (ITS) communication architectures for maintaining the vehicle's Internet connectivity. As the vehicle moves around, it attaches to a new access network and is required to register a new address obtained from the new access network to a home agent (HA). This location update of NEMO-BS often results in unacceptable long handover latency and increased traffic load to the vehicle. To address these issues, in this paper, we introduce new NEMO support protocols, which rely on mobility service provisioning entities introduced in Proxy Mobile IPv6 (PMIPv6), as possible mobility support protocols for ITS. As a base protocol, we present PMIPv6-based NEMO (P-NEMO) to maintain the vehicle's Internet connectivity while moving and without participating in the location update management. In P-NEMO, the mobility management for the vehicle is supported by mobility service provisioning entities residing in a given PMIPv6 domain. To further improve handover performance, fast P-NEMO (FP-NEMO) has been developed as an extension protocol. FP-NEMO utilizes wireless L2 events to anticipate the vehicle's handovers. The mobility service provisioning entities prepare the vehicle's handover prior to the attachment of the vehicle to the new access network. Detailed handover procedures for P-NEMO and FP-NEMO are provided, and handover timing diagrams are presented to evaluate the performance of the proposed protocols. P-NEMO and FP-NEMO are compared with NEMO-BS in terms of traffic cost and handover latency.
- SourceAvailable from: G. G. Md. Nawaz Ali[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Nowadays, data dissemination using Road Side Units (RSUs) in Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks (VANETs) has received important consideration to assist the inter-vehicle communication for overcoming the vehicle to vehicle frequent disconnection problem. During rush hour, an RSU may be overloaded by many requests submitted by the vehicles. Due to strict realtime and short wireless transmission range coverage constraints, a heavily overloaded RSU may experience high deadline miss rate in effect of serving too many requests beyond its capacity. In this work, we investigate the vehicle submitted requests are generally two types: delay sensitive and delay tolerant. We propose a multiple-RSU model, which offers the opportunity to the RSUs suffering from handling high volume workload to transfer some of its delay tolerant requests to other RSUs, which have light workload and located in the direction in which the vehicle is heading. By a series of simulation experiments, we also support our multiple-RSU based co-operative load transferring model, which extensively outperforms the single independent RSU based VANETs model against a number of performance metrics.Australasian Telecommunication Networks and Applications Conference (ATNAC), 2011; 01/2011
Conference Paper: Network mobility protocol for vehicular ad hoc networks[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The goal of the network mobility (NEMO) management is to effectively reduce the complexity of handoff procedure and keep the mobile devices connected to the Internet. Vehicle is moving so fast that it may cause the handoff and packet loss problems. Both of the problems will lower down the throughput of the network. To overcome these problems, we propose a novel NEMO protocol for vehicular ad hoc network (VANET). In freeway, since every car is moving in a fixed direction with high moving speed, the car adopting our protocol can acquire IP address from the VANET through vehicle to vehicle communications. The vehicle can rely on the assistance of the front vehicle to execute the pre-handoff procedure or it may acquire its new IP address through multi-hop relays from the car on the lanes of the same or opposite direction and thus reduces the handoff delay and maintain the connectivity to the Internet. Simulation results have shown that the proposed scheme is able to reduce both handoff delay and packet loss rate.Proceedings of the 2009 IEEE conference on Wireless Communications & Networking Conference; 03/2013
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ABSTRACT: For overcoming the vehicle to vehicle frequent disconnection problem in VANETs data dissemination, several approaches have been proposed, including the provision of Road Side Units (RSUs). Due to the short wireless transmission range of RSUs and vehicle mobility, a vehicle spends only a short period of time inside the range of an RSU. This limitation, together with possible overload of RSUs sited near busy road junctions, may mean that requests from vehicles are not served within the prescribed deadlines. In this paper, we propose a cooperative load balancing approach among RSUs, in which an RSU can transfer the overload requests to other RSUs. Load transfer is done based on a number of factors: request delay tolerance, current load of the transferee RSU, and the direction in which the vehicle is heading. Using a series of simulation experiments, we demonstrate that the proposed cooperative load balancing approach outperforms the non-cooperative (stand-alone) approaches in a wide range of scenarios based on our performance metrics.The Journal of Supercomputing 02/2014; 67(2):438-468. DOI:10.1007/s11227-013-1011-y · 0.84 Impact Factor