Performance Analysis of PMIPv6Based NEtwork MObility for Intelligent Transportation Systems

IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology (Impact Factor: 1.98). 01/2012; 61(1):74-85. DOI: 10.1109/TVT.2011.2157949


While host mobility support for individual mobile hosts (MHs) has been widely investigated and developed over the past years, there has been relatively less attention to NEtwork MObility (NEMO). Since NEMO Basic Support (NEMO-BS) was developed, it has been the central pillar in Intelligent Transport Systems (ITS) communication architectures for maintaining the vehicle's Internet connectivity. As the vehicle moves around, it attaches to a new access network and is required to register a new address obtained from the new access network to a home agent (HA). This location update of NEMO-BS often results in unacceptable long handover latency and increased traffic load to the vehicle. To address these issues, in this paper, we introduce new NEMO support protocols, which rely on mobility service provisioning entities introduced in Proxy Mobile IPv6 (PMIPv6), as possible mobility support protocols for ITS. As a base protocol, we present PMIPv6-based NEMO (P-NEMO) to maintain the vehicle's Internet connectivity while moving and without participating in the location update management. In P-NEMO, the mobility management for the vehicle is supported by mobility service provisioning entities residing in a given PMIPv6 domain. To further improve handover performance, fast P-NEMO (FP-NEMO) has been developed as an extension protocol. FP-NEMO utilizes wireless L2 events to anticipate the vehicle's handovers. The mobility service provisioning entities prepare the vehicle's handover prior to the attachment of the vehicle to the new access network. Detailed handover procedures for P-NEMO and FP-NEMO are provided, and handover timing diagrams are presented to evaluate the performance of the proposed protocols. P-NEMO and FP-NEMO are compared with NEMO-BS in terms of traffic cost and handover latency.

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    • "It is expected in the near future that, with the mass deployment of VANET, VANET will play an important role in the accident early warning, traffic safety, traffic management, and passenger entertainment and offer the comfortable and safe driving environment to users. It can be a typical application of the Internet of things [2]. Vehicular network has attracted the considerable attention in the research field and commercial field. "
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    ABSTRACT: VANET is a hot spot of intelligent transportation researches. For vehicle users, the file sharing and content distribution through roadside access points (AP) as well as the vehicular ad hoc networks (VANET) have been an important complement to that cellular network. So the AP deployment is one of the key issues to improve the communication performance of VANET. In this paper, an access point optimization method is proposed based on particle swarm optimization algorithm. The transmission performances of the routing protocol with random linear network coding before and after the access point optimization are analyzed. The simulation results show the optimization model greatly affects the VANET transmission performances based on network coding, and it can enhance the delivery rate by 25% and 14% and reduce the average delay of transmission by 38% and 33%.
    Journal of Electrical and Computer Engineering 01/2014; 2014(11):1-5. DOI:10.1155/2014/185412
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    • "In 2004, FCC formulates the technical specifications for DSRC which supports the transmission of large volume of data within a short range [2]. A number of applications has been envisioned in Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks (VANETs) such as road safety, driving assistance, emergency public service, business, entertainment etc. [3], internet service from on board vehicle [16], and many more. In VANETs, as vehicles are normally on move, hence vehicle to vehicle frequent disconnection problem is very common. "
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    ABSTRACT: Nowadays, data dissemination using Road Side Units (RSUs) in Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks (VANETs) has received important consideration to assist the inter-vehicle communication for overcoming the vehicle to vehicle frequent disconnection problem. During rush hour, an RSU may be overloaded by many requests submitted by the vehicles. Due to strict realtime and short wireless transmission range coverage constraints, a heavily overloaded RSU may experience high deadline miss rate in effect of serving too many requests beyond its capacity. In this work, we investigate the vehicle submitted requests are generally two types: delay sensitive and delay tolerant. We propose a multiple-RSU model, which offers the opportunity to the RSUs suffering from handling high volume workload to transfer some of its delay tolerant requests to other RSUs, which have light workload and located in the direction in which the vehicle is heading. By a series of simulation experiments, we also support our multiple-RSU based co-operative load transferring model, which extensively outperforms the single independent RSU based VANETs model against a number of performance metrics.
    Australasian Telecommunication Networks and Applications Conference (ATNAC), 2011; 01/2011
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    ABSTRACT: Network mobility (NEMO) allows various types of in-vehicle networks (e.g., WLANs inside public transport vehicle) to be seamlessly connected to the Internet. An on-board mobile router (MR) connects the moving network to the Internet by means of high-speed cellular mobile data services. Unlike terminal mobility, where the mobile hosts (MHs) connect to the cellular base station directly, MHs in NEMO encounter an additional wireless link (MR–MH) before they get connected to the Internet. In this paper, we first note the impact of this additional wireless link on the performance of the wireless enhancements of TCP and observe that the existing TCP enhancement schemes designed for conventional terminal mobility are not equally effective in NEMO. So, we propose an extension of TCP, called on-board TCP (obTCP), to effectively address the double wireless link related issues in NEMO. We compare obTCP against a classical scheme, called snoop, known for its effectiveness in terminal mobility, and analytically demonstrate that the performance gain of obTCP over snoop increases linearly with the delays, and non-linearly with the loss probabilities in the wireless links. Finally, we extend these analyses to obtain throughput models for snoop and obTCP in NEMO. The throughput models are validated through ns-2 simulations.
    Journal of Network and Computer Applications 01/2013; 41. DOI:10.1016/j.jnca.2013.10.007 · 2.23 Impact Factor
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