Phosphate control in end-stage renal disease: Barriers and opportunities
ABSTRACT Hyperphosphatemia is a nearly universal complication of end-stage renal disease that is widely recognized as one of the most important and most challenging clinical targets to meet in the care of dialysis patients. Left untreated, it can lead to bone pain, pruritus and worsening secondary hyperparathyroidism. Data from observational studies demonstrate that an elevated serum phosphorus level is an independent risk factor for mortality, and that treatment with phosphate binders is independently associated with improved survival. Experimental studies provide support for the epidemiologic findings: phosphate excess promotes vascular calcification, induces endothelial dysfunction and may contribute to other emerging chronic kidney disease-specific mechanisms of cardiovascular toxicity. On the basis of this evidence, clinical practice guidelines recommend specific targets for serum phosphorus levels in the dialysis population. The purpose of this review is to summarize common challenges in meeting these targets and to identify potential opportunities for improvement.
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ABSTRACT: Background and objectives: Hyperparathyroidism and hyperphosphatemia contribute to the inflammatory effects in chronic hemodialysis (HD) patients. Interleukin-17-producing CD4+ effector memory T (Th17) cells and CD4+CD25+Foxp3 regulatory T (Treg) cells both play critical roles in immune activation and inflammation. We investigated the relationship between the Treg and Th17 cells and the phosphate level in chronic HD patients. Methods: 105 patients aged ≥35 years on chronic HD over 3 months were enrolled. The peripheral blood mononuclear cells were collected, cultured, and stimulated by phytohemagglutinin-L, phorbol myristate acetate, and ionomycin at different time points for T cell differentiation. Results: The T cell differentiation was as follows: Th17 cells (mean±standard deviation (SD): 25.61%±10.2%) and Treg cells (8.45%±4.3%). The Th17 cell differentiation was positively correlated with the phosphate and albumin levels and negatively correlated with age. The Treg cell differentiation was negatively correlated with albumin level and age. In the nondiabetes group (n=53), the Th17 cell differentiation was predominantly correlated with the phosphate and iPTH (intact parathyroid hormone) levels as well as the dialysis vintage. Conclusion: Higher phosphate and iPTH levels and longer dialysis duration may increase Th17 cell differentiation, especially in the nondiabetic chronic HD patients.The Scientific World Journal 01/2014; 2014:593170. DOI:10.1155/2014/593170 · 1.73 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Phosphate excess is associated with increased mortality in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) and has recently been linked to accelerated aging. Oral phosphate binders are prescribed to patients with CKD to prevent absorption of dietary phosphate. Currently available binders have been associated with impaired outcomes (calcium-based binders) or are expensive (non-calcium-based binders). Iron-based phosphate binders represent a new class of phosphate binders. Four iron-based phosphate binders have undergone testing in clinical trials. The development of fermagate and SBR759 is currently on hold due to suboptimal and adverse effect profiles in at least some clinical trials. Ferric citrate and sucroferric oxyhydroxide (PA21) are at different stages of application for regulatory approval after being found safe and efficacious in decreasing serum phosphate. Iron from ferric citrate is more readily absorbed than that from sucroferric oxyhydroxide. Sucroferric oxyhydroxide was launched in the USA in 2014 for the treatment of hyperphosphatemia in adult dialysis patients. Ferric citrate may be more suited for chronic treatment of hyperphosphatemia in CKD patients requiring iron supplements but its use may have to be limited in time because of potential for iron overload in patients not needing iron or not receiving erythropoiesis-stimulating agents. In contrast, sucroferric oxyhydroxide may be more suited for hyperphosphatemic CKD patients not requiring iron supplements.Drugs 05/2014; 74(8). DOI:10.1007/s40265-014-0224-6 · 4.34 Impact Factor