Structure-based approach to the design of BakBH3 mimetic peptides with increased helical propensity.
ABSTRACT The Bcl-2 family of proteins are well-characterized regulators of the intrinsic apoptotic pathway. Proteins within this family can be classified as either prosurvival or prodeath members and the balance between them present at the mitochondrial membrane is what determines if the cell lives or dies. Specific interactions among Bcl-2 family proteins play a crucial role in regulating programmed cell death. Structural studies have established a conserved interaction pattern among Bcl-2 family members. This interaction is mediated by the binding of the hydrophobic face of the amphipathic α-helical BH3 domain into a conserved hydrophobic groove on the prosurvival partners. It has been reported that an increase in the helical content of BH3 mimetic peptides considerably improves the binding affinity. In this context, this work states for designing peptides derived from the BH3 domain of the proapoptotic protein Bak by substitution of some non-interacting residues by the helical inducing residue Aib. Different synthetic peptides preserving BakBH3 relevant interactions were proposed and simulated presenting a better predicted binding energy and higher helical content than the wild type Bak peptide.
- SourceAvailable from: Kenneth M MerzJournal of the American Chemical Society 05/1995; 117:5179-5197. · 11.44 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: alpha-Amino acids are important building blocks for the synthesis of a large number of bioactive compounds and pharmaceutical drugs. However, a literature survey revealed that no theoretical conformational study of alpha-amino acids with cage carbon frameworks has been performed to date. This paper reports the results of a conformational study on the (R)-8-amino-pentacyclo[188.8.131.52(2,6).0(3,10).0(5,9)]undecane-8-carboxylic acid monopeptide (cage monopeptide), using molecular mechanics and ab initio methods. The in vacuo Ramachandran maps computed using the different parameterizations of the AMBER force field show the C7eq structure as the most favourable conformation, in contrast to the C7ax structure, that is the lowest energy conformation at the ab initio level. Analysis of these maps reveals the helical preference for the monopeptide and provides the potential for the cage residue to be incorporated into constrained peptide analogues.Journal of Peptide Science 06/2004; 10(5):274-84. · 1.86 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2) family of proteins regulates the intrinsic pathway of apoptosis. Interactions between specific anti- and pro-apoptotic Bcl-2 proteins determine the fate of a cell. Anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 proteins have been shown to be over-expressed in certain cancers and they are attractive targets for developing anti-cancer drugs. Peptides from the BH3 region of pro-apoptotic proteins have been shown to interact with anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 proteins and induce biological activity similar to that observed in parent proteins. However, the specificity of BH3 peptides derived from different pro-apoptotic proteins differ for different anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 proteins. In this study, we have investigated the relationship between the stable helical nature of BH3 peptides and their affinities to Bcl-X(L), an anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 protein. We have carried out molecular dynamics simulations of six BH3 peptides derived from Bak, Bad and Bim pro-apoptotic proteins for a period of 50 ns each in aqueous medium. Due to the amphipathic nature of BH3 peptides, the hydrophobic residues on the hydrophobic face tend to cluster together in all BH3 peptides. While this process resulted in a complete loss of helical structure in 16-mer Bak and 16-mer Bad wild type peptides, stabilizing interactions in the hydrophilic face of the BH3 peptides and capping interactions helped to maintain partial helical character in 16-mer Bad mutant and 16-mer Bim peptides. The latter two 16-mer peptides exhibit higher affinity for Bcl-X(L). Similarly the longer BH3 peptides, 25-mer Bad and 33-mer Bim, also resulted in smaller and stable helical fragments and their helical conformation is stabilized by interactions between residues in the solvent-exposed hydrophilic half of the peptide. The stable nature of helical segment in a BH3 peptide can be directly correlated to its binding affinity and the helical region encompassed the highly conserved Leu residue. We propose that upon approaching the hydrophobic groove of anti-apoptotic proteins, a longer helix will be induced in high affinity BH3 peptides by extending the smaller stable helical segments around the conserved Leu residue in both N- and C-terminal regions. The results reported in this study will have implications in developing peptide-based inhibitors for anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 proteins.Journal of Computer-Aided Molecular Design 05/2011; 25(5):413-26. · 3.17 Impact Factor