Structure-based approach to the design of BakBH3 mimetic peptides with increased helical propensity
ABSTRACT The Bcl-2 family of proteins are well-characterized regulators of the intrinsic apoptotic pathway. Proteins within this family can be classified as either prosurvival or prodeath members and the balance between them present at the mitochondrial membrane is what determines if the cell lives or dies. Specific interactions among Bcl-2 family proteins play a crucial role in regulating programmed cell death. Structural studies have established a conserved interaction pattern among Bcl-2 family members. This interaction is mediated by the binding of the hydrophobic face of the amphipathic α-helical BH3 domain into a conserved hydrophobic groove on the prosurvival partners. It has been reported that an increase in the helical content of BH3 mimetic peptides considerably improves the binding affinity. In this context, this work states for designing peptides derived from the BH3 domain of the proapoptotic protein Bak by substitution of some non-interacting residues by the helical inducing residue Aib. Different synthetic peptides preserving BakBH3 relevant interactions were proposed and simulated presenting a better predicted binding energy and higher helical content than the wild type Bak peptide.
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ABSTRACT: We present the derivation of a new molecular mechanical force field for simulating the structures, conformational energies, and interaction energies of proteins, nucleic acids, and many related organic molecules in condensed phases. This effective two-body force field is the successor to the Weiner et al, force field and was developed with some of the same philosophies, such as the use of a simple diagonal potential function and electrostatic potential fit atom centered charges. The need for a 10-12 function for representing hydrogen bonds is no longer necessary due to the improved performance of the new charge model and new van der Waals parameters. These new charges are determined using a 6-31G basis set and restrained electrostatic potential (RESP) fitting and have been shown to reproduce interaction energies, free energies of solvation, and conformational energies of simple small molecules to a good degree of accuracy. Furthermore, the new RESP charges exhibit less variability as a function of the molecular conformation used in the charge determination. The new van der Waals parameters have been derived from liquid simulations and include hydrogen parameters which take into account the effects of any geminal electronegative atoms. The bonded parameters developed by Weiner et al. were modified as necessary to reproduce experimental vibrational frequencies and structures. Most of the simple dihedral parameters have been retained from Weiner et. al., but a complex set of phi and psi parameters which do a good job of reproducing the energies of the low-energy conformations of glycyl and alanyl dipeptides has been developed for the peptide backbone.Journal of the American Chemical Society 05/1995; 117:5179-5197. DOI:10.1021/ja00124a002 · 12.11 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: alpha-Amino acids are important building blocks for the synthesis of a large number of bioactive compounds and pharmaceutical drugs. However, a literature survey revealed that no theoretical conformational study of alpha-amino acids with cage carbon frameworks has been performed to date. This paper reports the results of a conformational study on the (R)-8-amino-pentacyclo[188.8.131.52(2,6).0(3,10).0(5,9)]undecane-8-carboxylic acid monopeptide (cage monopeptide), using molecular mechanics and ab initio methods. The in vacuo Ramachandran maps computed using the different parameterizations of the AMBER force field show the C7eq structure as the most favourable conformation, in contrast to the C7ax structure, that is the lowest energy conformation at the ab initio level. Analysis of these maps reveals the helical preference for the monopeptide and provides the potential for the cage residue to be incorporated into constrained peptide analogues.Journal of Peptide Science 05/2004; 10(5):274-84. DOI:10.1002/psc.526 · 1.55 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The presence of multiple alpha,alpha-dialkyl amino acids such as alpha-methylalanine (alpha-aminoisobutyric acid, Aib) leads to predominantly helical structures, either with alpha-helical or 3(10)-helical hydrogen bonding patterns. The crystal structure of emerimicin-(1-9) benzyl ester (Ac-Phe-Aib-Aib-Aib-Val-Gly-Leu-Aib-Aib-OBzl) reported here shows essentially pure alpha-helical character, whereas other similar compounds show predominantly 3(10)-helical structures. The factors that govern helical preference include the inherent relative stability of the alpha-helix compared with the 3(10)-helix, the extra hydrogen bond seen with 3(10)-helices, and the enhanced electrostatic dipolar interaction of the 3(10)-helix when packed in a crystalline lattice. The balance of these forces, when combined with the steric requirements of the amino acid side chains, determines the relative stability of the two helical conformations under a given set of experimental conditions.Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 02/1990; 87(1):487-91. DOI:10.1073/pnas.87.1.487 · 9.67 Impact Factor