Epigenetic silencing of miR-126 contributes to tumor invasion and angiogenesis in colorectal cancer
ABSTRACT microRNAs (miRNAs) have been reported to play a crucial role in regulating a variety of genes pivotal for tumor metastasis. miR-126 is well known as one of the angiogenesis regulatory miRNAs. Recent studies have reported controversial roles of miR-126 in tumor progression. In this study, we sought to investigate the potential roles of miR-126 in colorectal cancer (CRC). By real-time PCR, miR-126 was shown to be downregulated in primary CRC tissues and cell lines. Restoration of miR-126 in CRC cells inhibited cell growth, migration and invasion. Using both in silico prediction and immunoblotting, we found that vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) was a target of miR-126. The interaction of miR-126 on the 3'UTR of VEGF mRNA was validated by luciferase reporter assay. Mechanistically, we found that the silencing of miR-126 was induced by promoter methyl-ation of its host gene, EGFL7. Treatment with 5-aza-CdR restored miR-126 expression and thereby led to a decline in VEGF expression. Functionally, due to suppression of VEGF, enhanced miR-126 expression inhibited tumor neovasculature triggered by CRC cells. In conclusion, our findings suggest that DNA methylation-induced silencing of miR-126 contributes, at least in part, to tumor invasion and angiogenesis in CRC, through upregulation of VEGF expression. miR-126 may be a potential target for the therapeutic strategy against CRC.
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ABSTRACT: Clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) is an aggressive tumor with unpredictable behavior. Clinical parameters are not always accurate for predicting prognosis. miR-126 is differentially expressed in many cancers, including RCC, and is down-regulated in metastatic versus primary ccRCC. We assessed the prognostic significance of miR-126 in 264 primary ccRCCs. We also compared its expression in normal kidney, primary and metastatic ccRCC, and RCC subtypes. We validated our results on an independent set of 481 ccRCCs. miR-126 was down-regulated in metastatic versus primary tumors and in tumors of higher stage (P = 0.005) or higher grade (P = 0.002). miR-126 up-regulation was associated with significantly prolonged disease-free survival (P < 0.001) and overall survival (P = 0.015). For larger tumors (>4 cm), patients with higher miR-126 expression had significantly longer survival. Restoration of miR-126 expression decreased cellular migration and proliferation in RCC cell lines. The ccRCCs exhibited the highest miR-126 expression, and papillary RCCs exhibited the lowest expression. We identified a number of miR-126 targets and pathways that are involved in carcinogenesis, including the apoptosis signaling pathway. miR-126 is a promising prognostic marker in ccRCC that can distinguish between clear cell and papillary subtypes. In addition, miR-126 has potential therapeutic applications. Copyright © 2014 American Society for Investigative Pathology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.American Journal Of Pathology 01/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.ajpath.2014.11.017 · 4.60 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a common malignancy and the fourth leading cause of cancer deaths worldwide. It results from the accumulation of multiple genetic and epigenetic changes leading to the transformation of colon epithelial cells into invasive adenocarcinomas. In CRC, epigenetic changes, in particular promoter CpG island methylation, occur more frequently than genetic mutations. Hypermethylation contributes to carcinogenesis by inducing transcriptional silencing or downregulation of tumour suppressor genes and currently, over 600 candidate hypermethylated genes have been identified. Over the past decade, a deeper understanding of epigenetics coupled with technological advances have hinted at the potential of translating benchtop research into biomarkers for clinical use. DNA methylation represents one of the largest bodies of literature in epigenetics, and hence has the highest potential for minimally invasive biomarker development. Most progress has been made in the development of diagnostic markers and there are currently two, one stool-based and one blood-based, biomarkers that are commercially available for diagnostics. Prognostic and predictive methylation markers are still at their infantile stages.International Journal of Molecular Sciences 02/2015; 16(2):2472-2496. DOI:10.3390/ijms16022472 · 2.34 Impact Factor
Article: MicroRNAs: new players in IBD[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs, 18-23 nucleotides long, which act as post-transcriptional regulators of gene expression. miRNAs are strongly implicated in the pathogenesis of many common diseases, including IBDs. This review aims to outline the history, biogenesis and regulation of miRNAs. The role of miRNAs in the development and regulation of the innate and adaptive immune system is discussed, with a particular focus on mechanisms pertinent to IBD and the potential translational applications. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.Gut 12/2014; 64(3). DOI:10.1136/gutjnl-2014-307891 · 13.32 Impact Factor