Child sexual assault: Risk factors for girls
ABSTRACT Objective: To identify prospectively measured risk factors of sexual assault (SA) among girls age 17 and younger. Method: The data come from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics and are derived from interviews with 1,087 girls, their primary caregivers, and household heads. The data were collected from the girls' first year of life through their early twenties. Factors measured during childhood were used to predict whether the girls experienced a subsequent first sexual assault before the age of 18. Results: Prospectively measured risk factors associated with subsequent child SA included the absence of one or both parents, maternal education less than college, family income below 400% of the federal poverty threshold, low caregiver warmth, child internalizing and externalizing behaviors, impulsivity, low achievement scores, and having been classified by their school as needing special education. Conclusions: Girls with behavioral health problems and learning challenges are at heightened risk for sexual assault. Research on behavioral health consequences of SA should control for preexisting SA risk factors to more accurately estimate the impact of child SA on subsequent behavioral health.
SourceAvailable from: Hanne Greger[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Background: Child abuse is a broad term that includes physical, sexual, and emotional (e.g., psychological, verbal) abuse. There are huge variations with regard to the level of severity and the consequences of abuse. Because child abuse is such a sensitive topic, it is a challenging task to conduct studies concerning this subject. Objective: The aim of the study was to identify areas that could be improved to offer better health care services to patients. Therefore, routine assessments, the characteristics of the cases, and the types of follow up were emphasized. Method: The Norwegian Ministry of Health and Care Services provided an exception from the principle of informed co nsent so that this study could be conducted. We had access to the medical records of all children between the ages of 0 and 14 years old who were referred to the regional child abuse management unit in 2006 and 2007. A descriptive, cross -sectional study was performed. Results: One hundred and six children were referred to the child abuse management unit. For the majority of these patients (80.2%), sexual abuse was the only concern. The children presented diverse psychological and somatic symptoms and pro blems. Psychosocial functioning was in general not properly described in the records. Four out of five of th e children were referred to services for follow up after the first examination in the child abuse management unit. Only 36% of the children were referred to child protective services. Conclusion: This study revealed that psychosocial functioning is seldom documented and that psychological symptoms could be described more reliably and in more detail. A systematic approach may be helpful for health care providers, and we suggest the implementation of valid evidence-based instruments, such as the Child Behavior Checklist and the Children’s Global Assessment Scale.
Article: Child Sexual Abuse.[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: This article begins by defining sexual abuse, and reviews the literature on the epidemiology of child sexual abuse (CSA). Clinical outcomes of CSA are described, including health and mental health. An outline is given of all the services often involved after an incident of CSA, and the need for coordination among them. Treatment strategies and evidence-based recommendations are reviewed. Challenges around dissemination and implementation, cultural considerations, and familial dynamics are described. Possible future directions are discussed.Child and adolescent psychiatric clinics of North America 04/2014; 23(2):321-337. DOI:10.1016/j.chc.2014.01.003 · 2.88 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Using propensity-matched controls, the present study examines the long-term adjustment of women reporting childhood sexual trauma (CST) at or before the age of 14 in terms of parenting efficacy and parenting behavior. Data for these analyses were obtained from mother reports and from observational protocols from a longitudinal study of low-income, rural families. The novel use of propensity-matched controls to create a control group matched on family of origin variables provides evidence that when women with CST are compared with the matched comparison women, females who experienced CST show poorer functioning across multiple domains of parenting (sensitivity, harsh intrusiveness, boundary dissolution), but not in parenting efficacy. Follow-up moderation analyses suggest that the potential effects of trauma on parenting behaviors are not attenuated by protective factors such as higher income, higher education, or stable adult relationships. Implications for interventions with childhood sexual trauma histories and directions for future study are proposed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.Child Abuse & Neglect 02/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.chiabu.2015.01.012 · 2.47 Impact Factor