High-Risk Human Papillomavirus DNA Detected in Primary Squamous Cell Carcinoma of Urinary Bladder
From the Department of Pathology & Laboratory Medicine, University of Miami, Miami, Florida (Drs Chapman-Fredricks, Cioffi-Lavina, Garcia-Buitrago, Gomez-Fernandez, Ganjei-Azar, and Jordà)Archives of pathology & laboratory medicine (Impact Factor: 2.84). 08/2013; 137(8):1088-93. DOI: 10.5858/arpa.2012-0122-OA
Context.-We reported previously that more than one-third (37%) of primary bladder squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs) demonstrate diffuse p16 immunoreactivity independent of gender. This observation made us question whether p16 overexpression in bladder carcinoma is due to human papillomavirus (HPV)-dependent mechanisms. Objectives.-To determine whether the presence of high-risk HPV (HR-HPV) DNA could be detected in these tumor cells. Design.-Fourteen cases of primary bladder SCC, which were positive for p16 by immunohistochemistry, were probed for the detection of HR-HPV by in situ hybridization and the signal amplification Invader assay. Samples positive for detection of HR-HPV by Invader assay were amplified by using HR-HPV type-specific primers, and amplification products were DNA sequenced. Results.-Detection of HR-HPV by the in situ hybridization method was negative in all cases (0 of 14). However, in 3 of 14 cases (21.4%), the presence of HR-HPV DNA was detected with the Cervista HPV HR Invader assay, which was followed by identification of genotype. All positive cases were confirmed by using HR-HPV type-specific amplification followed by DNA sequencing. Identified HR-HPV genotypes included HPV 16 (2 cases) and HPV 35 (1 case). Conclusions.-High-risk HPV DNA is detectable in a subset of primary bladder SCCs. Based on the well-documented carcinogenic potential of HR-HPV, there is a necessity for additional studies to investigate the role of HR-HPV in bladder carcinogenesis.
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