Tally of Cold Fusion Papers
ABSTRACT This document contains a tally of cold fusion papers from two sources: the list maintained by Dieter Britz at Aarhus U., and the EndNote database used to generate the indexes at LENR-CANR.org. Various tallies such as the number of peer-reviewed experimental papers are presented. Purpose This report presents some background and a breakdown of the items in two databases of cold fusion papers: the Britz collection, and the LENR-CANR database. The purpose is to give the reader a sense of the scale, variety, and sources of the material available about this subject. This is also intended to give some indication of how much has been published on cold fusion, where it was published, and approximately how many positive and negative papers have been published. This paper includes the following tallies: 1. Summary statistics for the LENR-CANR database 2. Positive, peer-reviewed excess heat papers culled from both databases. 3. Papers from Britz collection. 4. Famous failed neutron studies from 1989. These had a large influence on scientific opinion and the subsequent history of the field, but many cold fusion researchers believe they were flawed and should not be given weight today. Details from these four tallies are gathered in Appendix A. They include multipage lists of journal titles, authors and the individual titles of papers referenced in the four tallies.
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ABSTRACT: ChemInform is a weekly Abstracting Service, delivering concise information at a glance that was extracted from about 100 leading journals. To access a ChemInform Abstract of an article which was published elsewhere, please select a “Full Text” option. The original article is trackable via the “References” option.ChemInform 04/1991; 304:271-278.
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ABSTRACT: Preliminary tests have been made with electrolytic cells utilizing 0.2N LiOD in D2O as the electrolyte and a palladium cathode surrounded by a wire-wound platinum anode operating at cathode current densities of 100–400 mA/cm2. The cathodes were swaged to diameters of 2.8 or 5.5 mm with 8.5 cm of active length. The electrolyte temperature was controlled, heat was removed by flowing water in a cooling jacket, and the cell was insulated. Cooling water and electrolyte temperatures were measured by thermocouples, and neutron and gamma-ray spectra were recorded. The electrolyte level was periodically monitored and replenished with D2O. Tests up to 2 weeks in duration were made with no sustained release of energy in excess of the electrical power input, although there was one period of 12 h when an unaccountable heat excess was observed. In another test, an anomalous neutron flux was measured during the first few hours that was 3.5 standard deviations above the background.Journal of Fusion Energy 05/1990; 9(2):115-119. · 1.20 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Additional evidence is presented to show that heat production resulting from the Pons-Fleis- chmann Effect has a positive temperature coefficient, has a critical onset current density, and originates at the palladium cathode.01/1994;
Rothwell, J., Tally of Cold Fusion Papers. 2009, LENR-CANR.org.
Tally of Cold Fusion Papers
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This document contains a tally of cold fusion papers from two sources: the list
maintained by Dieter Britz at Aarhus U., and the EndNote database used to
generate the indexes at LENR-CANR.org. Various tallies such as the number of
peer-reviewed experimental papers are presented.
This report presents some background and a breakdown of the items in two databases of cold
fusion papers: the Britz collection, and the LENR-CANR database. The purpose is to give the
reader a sense of the scale, variety, and sources of the material available about this subject. This
is also intended to give some indication of how much has been published on cold fusion, where it
was published, and approximately how many positive and negative papers have been published.
This paper includes the following tallies:
1. Summary statistics for the LENR-CANR database
2. Positive, peer-reviewed excess heat papers culled from both databases.
3. Papers from Britz collection.
4. Famous failed neutron studies from 1989. These had a large influence on scientific opinion
and the subsequent history of the field, but many cold fusion researchers believe they were
flawed and should not be given weight today.
Details from these four tallies are gathered in Appendix A. They include multipage lists of
journal titles, authors and the individual titles of papers referenced in the four tallies.
This data is compiled from two databases:
1. Britz's Cold Nuclear Fusion Bibliography (the Britz collection) which is located on the
web page of the Chemistry Department at Aarhus University, at
2. The LENR-CANR database, in EndNote format.
The Britz collection consists of nine bibliographies of cold fusion related material:
2. Journal Articles (from peer-reviewed journals only)
4. Magazine & newspaper comments
5. Peripherals (papers that relate to cold fusion but are not directly about it)
6. ICCF-4 papers, from the Transactions of Fusion Technology
8. Cluster impact fusion
9. The Filimonov collection (Russian work).
In this study I tallied data from bibliographies number 2 and 6. As of December 21, 2008
bibliography 2 included 1,390 peer-reviewed (refereed) journal papers. Bibliography 6 was
compiled in 1994 and includes 66 items.
The LENR-CANR database is in the EndNote format.1It was originally compiled by E.
Storms. As of April 2009, it includes 3,575 items. It includes peer-reviewed journal papers plus a
much broader selection of resources such as proceedings papers, papers from non-peer reviewed
journals, reports issued by national laboratories and the U.S. Navy, books, some newspaper
articles, and a few records of television broadcasts.
I updated the original Storms database, and cross-checked it against the Britz collection. I
added some (but not all) proceedings papers published subsequently, and papers from various
other sources such as the Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (BARC). I also added papers sent by
authors to be uploaded, and titles they asked me to add. The database lists everything that that
has been added to the on-line collection of papers, which includes things like PowerPoint slides
from conferences, and some papers that have little or nothing to do with the science of cold
fusion, such as a useful guide to energy published by NREL2and an autobiographical essay by
J. O’M. Bockris.3
The LENR-CANR database is comprehensive but not exhaustive. It is not intended to be an
authoritative listing of every paper ever published about cold fusion. It is a tool used to maintain
the website and to write papers about cold fusion. I have several hundred papers that I have not
added to the database for various reasons, mainly because in my opinion these papers are
unimportant. They would probably not be of much interest to readers and I do not plan to upload
them. Most of these unlisted papers are in conference proceedings. Some are in foreign
languages that cannot easily be entered into EndNote or transcribed, especially Japanese.
The database contains a small number of items that are not directly related to cold fusion.
These are included because they are referenced by other books and papers in the literature. Here
is an example: Jung, P., Fundamental Aspects of Inert Gasses in Solids Diffusion and Clustering
of Helium in Noble Metals, ed. S.E. Donnelly and J.H. Evans. 1991: Plenum Press, NY Jung.
The main focus of LENR-CANR is on the experimental literature, rather than theory. The
database includes nearly every experimental paper published in peer-reviewed mainstream
journals. We may have left out a few peer-reviewed theory and review papers. We have probably
included most of the important experimental papers from the conference proceedings, but not all
theory, review and history papers.
Some of the totals in this document are approximate. As noted above, our purpose is not to
track down and record exactly how many papers have been published about this subject. There
are various inaccuracies in the database such as the same book listed twice when different
editions were published. Assigning categories to the papers is sometimes problematic. Some
papers are difficult to categorize as positive or negative. Many results are mixed and in some
cases even the author does not reach a firm conclusion.
There are discrepancies between the Britz and LENR-CANR databases because of differences
of opinion. We categorize some papers as “refereed” (peer-reviewed) that Britz deemed not
refereed enough to make the cut, such as the ones in ICCF-4 Transactions of Fusion Technology,
Vol. 26T (1994). As noted above, he moved these papers into a separate database titled “ICCF4”
Because of these inaccuracies, the numbers of papers in various categories should be taken as a
general trend and not a precise total.
1. Summary statistics for the LENR-CANR database
As of April 2009, the LENR-CANR database lists 3,575 items. They are broken down into 12
categories such as Journal Article and Conference Proceeding. The numbers of items in the 5
major categories are shown in Table 1.
Table 1. Number of items in major categories in LENR-CANR database
Conference Proceedings paper
Other (magazine articles, videos, etc.)
Number of items
The database lists 4,752 authors.
Most of the Journal Articles, Conference Proceedings papers and Reports are written by
multiple authors. In many cases a group of authors have written several papers, and groups from
institutions such as the NRL, SRI and Energetics Technologies have collaborated to coauthor
some major papers.
Most newspapers articles, books and “others” have only one author. Since there are 172 items
in these categories, that comes to roughly 200 authors. The other 4,500 authors wrote the 3,403
articles, proceedings and reports. Groups of them often wrote several papers, so the average
number of authors per paper is high. This reflects the multidisciplinary nature of cold fusion
research. A project that requires expertise in calorimetry, electrochemistry and neutron detection
should be done by at least two or three senior researchers. Most of these studies have been
conducted with such groups. Many experiments also employ graduate students, as usual, but
perhaps not as many as you would find in a less controversial area of research. More often than
usual, senior professors do their own lab work.
There are 470 Journals in the database. Storms and I did not distinguish between peer-
reviewed and non-peer-reviewed journals. All of the journals are listed in the Appendix A, List
1, so the reader is welcome to categorize them.
Britz, Morrison and others have noted that the number of cold fusion papers published per year
declined rapidly after 1989. Morrison and others claim this is a symptom of “pathological
science.” (Britz does not make this claim.)4Most cold fusion researchers feel that it is caused by
academic politics and opposition to the research. Britz and Morrison published graphs showing a
sharp decline in peer-reviewed papers. These graphs are probably accurate, but the data in the
LENR-CANR database does not agree with them. Figure 1 shows the Britz collection papers
tallied by year. Figure 2 shows the papers in the LENR-CANR database tallied by year of
publication. This does not reflect the trends in peer-reviewed papers and it probably does not
reflect actual overall totals, because our database is skewed in favor of recent proceedings
papers. We did not enter many papers published in early proceedings, or in more recent
proceedings that I did not edit, such as ICCF-13.
Figure 1. Papers in Britz Bibliography 2 Journal Articles published per year. Data courtesy D. Britz
Figure 2. Papers in the LENR-CANR database published per year
Thousands of newspaper articles about cold fusion have been published, but we have added
only 58. These have technical, scientific or historic significance. Storms added these items in
order to reference them while writing books and papers, which was the original purpose of the
database, and the customary purpose of the EndNote program. Most were written by Jerry
Bishop (Wall Street Journal) or William Broad (New York Times). We added only 9 newspaper
articles after 1994, even though hundreds were published, especially in 2008 and 2009.
The database includes 69 papers from Infinite Energy magazine, which is a small fraction of
the total papers published there. Many papers in Infinite Energy are not directly related to cold
fusion, and others we simply neglected to add.
There are 695 full text papers available for download at LENR-CANR.org. They are not
representative of the full set of papers in the literature, or in our database. They skew toward
informal sources such as conference proceedings, because these papers have fewer copyright
restrictions. Compared to papers in the database, the full text papers include more mass media
newspaper and magazine articles, and more papers for the layman.
The selection of papers at LENR-CANR.org is somewhat haphazard because the authors
decide what they want us to upload. LENR-CANR.org is a library, not a journal. It is not
selective. We do not endorse a paper by uploading it. We accept papers from harsh critics of the
field as well as supporters. We accept both research papers and mass media articles. In most
cases we will accept any paper that has been published in a conference proceedings, journal or
magazine. We have imposed some selectivity by asking leading authors to contribute papers.
Several of them did not wish to, and some were told by their publishers that it would violate
copyright restrictions, so there are gaps in the collection. We urge readers who are seriously
interested in this topic to read books about cold fusion and original source papers in a university