Temporal bone encephalocele and cerebrospinal fluid fistula repair utilizing the middle cranial fossa or combined mastoid-middle cranial fossa approach Clinical article
Departments of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery and. Journal of Neurosurgery
(Impact Factor: 3.74).
07/2013; 119(5). DOI: 10.3171/2013.6.JNS13322
The goals of this study were to report the clinical presentation, radiographic findings, operative strategy, and outcomes among patients with temporal bone encephaloceles and cerebrospinal fluid fistulas (CSFFs) and to identify clinical variables associated with surgical outcome.
A retrospective case series including all patients who underwent a middle fossa craniotomy or combined mastoid-middle cranial fossa repair of encephalocele and/or CSFF between 2000 and 2012 was accrued from 2 tertiary academic referral centers.
Eighty-nine consecutive surgeries (86 patients, 59.3% women) were included. The mean age at time of surgery was 52.3 years, and the left side was affected in 53.9% of cases. The mean delay between symptom onset and diagnosis was 35.4 months, and the most common presenting symptoms were hearing loss (92.1%) and persistent ipsilateral otorrhea (73.0%). Few reported a history of intracranial infection (6.7%) or seizures (2.2%). Thirteen (14.6%) of 89 cases had a history of major head trauma, 23 (25.8%) were associated with chronic ear disease without prior operation, 17 (19.1%) occurred following tympanomastoidectomy, and 1 (1.1%) developed in a patient with a cerebral aqueduct cyst resulting in obstructive hydrocephalus. The remaining 35 cases (39.3%) were considered spontaneous. Among all patients, the mean body mass index (BMI) was 35.3 kg/m(2), and 46.4% exhibited empty sella syndrome. Patients with spontaneous lesions were statistically significantly older (p = 0.007) and were more commonly female (p = 0.048) compared with those with nonspontaneous pathology. Additionally, those with spontaneous lesions had a greater BMI than those with nonspontaneous disease (p = 0.102), although this difference did not achieve statistical significance. Thirty-two surgeries (36.0%) involved a middle fossa craniotomy alone, whereas 57 (64.0%) involved a combined mastoid-middle fossa repair. There were 7 recurrences (7.9%); 2 patients with recurrence developed meningitis. The use of artificial titanium mesh was statistically associated with the development of recurrent CSFF (p = 0.004), postoperative wound infection (p = 0.039), and meningitis (p = 0.014). Also notable, 6 of the 7 cases with recurrence had evidence of intracranial hypertension. When the 11 cases that involved using titanium mesh were excluded, 96.2% of patients whose lesions were reconstructed with an autologous multilayer repair had neither recurrent CSFF nor meningitis at the last follow-up.
Patients with temporal bone encephalocele and CSFF commonly present with persistent otorrhea and conductive hearing loss mimicking chronic middle ear disease, which likely contributes to a delay in diagnosis. There is a high prevalence of obesity among this patient population, which may play a role in the pathogenesis of primary and recurrent disease. A middle fossa craniotomy or a combined mastoid-middle fossa approach incorporating a multilayer autologous tissue technique is a safe and reliable method of repair that may be particularly useful for large or multifocal defects. Defect reconstruction using artificial titanium mesh should generally be avoided given increased risks of recurrence and postoperative meningitis.
Available from: George B Wanna
The Laryngoscope 08/2014; 125(2). DOI:10.1002/lary.24879 · 2.14 Impact Factor
Available from: Michael J Link
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The following study was conducted to identify risk factors for a postoperative CSF leak after vestibular schwannoma (VS) surgery.
The authors reviewed a prospectively maintained database of all patients who had undergone resection of a VS at the Mayo Clinic between September 1999 and May 2013. Patients who developed a postoperative CSF leak within 30 days of surgery were compared with those who did not. Data collected included patient age, sex, body mass index (BMI), tumor size, tumor side, history of prior tumor treatment, operative time, surgical approach, and extent of resection. Both univariate and multivariate regression analyses were performed to evaluate all variables as risk factors of a postoperative CSF leak.
A total of 457 patients were included in the study, with 45 patients (9.8%) developing a postoperative CSF leak. A significant association existed between increasing BMI and a CSF leak, with those classified as overweight (BMI 25-29.9), obese (BMI 30-39.9), or morbidly obese (BMI≥40) having a 2.5-, 3-, and 6-fold increased risk, respectively. Patients undergoing a translabyrinthine (TL) approach experienced a higher rate of CSF leaks (OR 2.5, 95% CI 1.3-4.6; p=0.005), as did those who had longer operative times (OR 1.04, 95% CI 1.02-1.07; p=0.0006). The BMI, a TL approach, and operative time remained independent risk factors on multivariate modeling.
Elevated BMI is a risk factor for the development of a postoperative CSF leak following VS surgery. Recognizing this preoperatively can allow surgeons to better counsel patients regarding the risks of surgery as well as perhaps to alter perioperative management in an attempt to decrease the likelihood of a leak. Patients undergoing a TL approach or having longer operative times are also at increased risk of developing a postoperative CSF leak.
Journal of Neurosurgery 11/2014; 122(2):1-5. DOI:10.3171/2014.10.JNS14432 · 3.74 Impact Factor
Available from: George B Wanna
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ABSTRACT: Objective: Temporal lobe encephaloceles are characterized by protrusion of brain parenchyma through a structural defect in the floor of the middle fossa. They have been reported to cause cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leaks, conductive hearing loss, meningitis, and seizures. The association between temporal encephaloceles and epileptiform activity is particularly rare.
Patients: All patients who presented to a single tertiary referral center between 2011 and 2014 with intractable seizures and radiographic evidence of a middle cranial fossa encephalocele were evaluated. Five patients from this subset who underwent surgical repair of their encephalocele are presented.
Intervention(s): Middle cranial fossa approach for encephalocele repair.
Main Outcome Measure(s): Postoperative epileptiform activity.
Results: Five patients underwent a craniotomy for resection of a temporal lobe encephalocele with repair of a middle fossa floor defect. After surgery, CSF rhinorrhea resolved, when present, and all patients remained seizure-free through their last available follow-up. Range of follow-up time was 3.5 months to 4 years. Average follow-up time was 19.7 months.
Conclusion: Temporal lobe encephaloceles are an infrequent cause of seizures. Given that these lesions can be missed with standard imaging modalities, they are likely underdiagnosed upon initial medical evaluation. This diagnosis should be considered in patients with intractable seizures. If an encephalocele is found, focused resection of epileptogenic tissue associated with herniation and repair of the temporal floor defect can provide definitive treatment
Otology & neurotology: official publication of the American Otological Society, American Neurotology Society [and] European Academy of Otology and Neurotology 07/2015; 36(8). DOI:10.1097/MAO.0000000000000825 · 1.79 Impact Factor
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