Mass gatherings are attended by an increasingly global audience and thus raise the concern of possible acute public health risks not normally encountered by the host population. The potential acute risks to individual and population health include communicable diseases. The communicable disease risks include emerging and re-emerging diseases in host and visiting populations. In this review, we provide an overview ofthe literature on respiratory infections at mass gatherings, then describe the impact of novel coronavirus 2012 (nCoV), an emerging respiratory disease virus, on the preparations for mass gathering. Although, nCoV emerged prior to the 2012 Hajj pilgrimage season, Muslims completed their religious duty without acquiring infections by nCoV. Clearly, the global nature of mass gatherings and their potential risks to international health make it imperative that research on such events and guidelines produced for their management are relevant to diverse contexts and are a collaborative effort between global experts.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Respiratory infections can be due to a multitude of etiologies and are common throughout the world. Most are viral and self-limited, yet these infections are commonly treated with antibiotics thus contributing to the increase in resistance. Historically, infectious disease diagnostics have focused on identification of the microbial culprit at the site of infection but the specificity of host response as measured by the host transcriptome, now enables us to classify the etiology of infection agnostic to pathogen class. The ability to rapidly determine whether a similar set of symptoms is due to a virus, bacteria, or other agent from a common specimen (blood) will have far-reaching public health benefits, and further research is warranted to transfer this technology into the clinical setting.
Data provided are for informational purposes only. Although carefully collected, accuracy cannot be guaranteed. The impact factor represents a rough estimation of the journal's impact factor and does not reflect the actual current impact factor. Publisher conditions are provided by RoMEO. Differing provisions from the publisher's actual policy or licence agreement may be applicable.