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Avian Medicine and Surgery

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    • "Parrots are often suffered from many bacterial diseases with often involvement of normal flora or environmental pathogens in response to stress and immunosuppression. Bacterial enteritis is often a spontaneous stress associated disease caused mainly by E. coli, Klebsiella, Salmonella, Pasteurella, Pseudomonas, Aeromonas and Citrobacter (Altman and Robert, 1997). Most of the enteric Salmonellae (Salmonella typhimurium, Salmonella enteritidis) are motile and classified as paratyphoid organisms and the diseases they produce are termed paratyphoid infections (Kirk et al., 2002). "
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    ABSTRACT: The research work was conducted to isolate and identify the microflora from apparently healthy caged parrots. A total of 45 samples (oral swabs, cloacal swabs and feces) were collected from five types of caged parrots (Gray cockatiels, Rose ringed parakeet, Alexandriane parakeet, Red breast parakeet and Blossom headed parakeet) of Dhaka Zoo during the period from April to August 2009. The samples were cultured on different bacteriological media and the bacteria were identified by their cultural and biochemical properties. All the isolates were allowed for antibiogram study. The bacteria isolated in this study from different types of caged parrots were E. coli (64.44%), Salmonella spp. (46.67%), Staphylococcus spp. (46.67%), Pasteurella spp. (33.33%), Proteus spp. (6.67%) and some unidentified Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Of these isolates, E. coli was the most frequent isolate. The frequency of Gram-negative bacteria was higher in this study. The percentage of bacterial isolates recovered from each type of parrots was almost similar. Irrespective of types of parrots, the higher percentage of different bacteria was isolated from cloacal swab (77.78%) followed by feces (75.56%). The 68.89% isolates were recovered from oral swab. All the suspected isolates of Salmonella spp. were confirmed by slide agglutination test using Salmonella polyvalent 'O' antiserum. Among the 21 Salmonella spp. isolated in this study, 4 (19.05%) isolates were identified as S. Pullorum when tested with specific antisera against S. Pullorum. The results of antibiotic sensitivity tests revealed that ampicillin and amoxicillin were completely resistant to E. coli and Pasteurella spp.; ampicillin to Proteus spp.; and furazolidone to Salmonella spp. and Pasteurella spp. However, the antibiotics of fluoroquinolone group such as ciprofloxacin, norfloxacin and enrofloxacin showed moderate to high sensitivity against almost all the bacterial isolates. Of these, ciprofloxacin was found to be consistently highly sensitive to all the bacterial isolates.
    Bangladesh Journal of Veterinary Medicine 08/2011; 8(1). DOI:10.3329/bjvm.v8i1.8349
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    • "Ageing was done according to wing plumage coloration and wear plus primary molt patterns. According to morphological and structural features of pigeons, were identified as rock dove type (Columba livia) (Altman et al., 1997; Tully et al., 2000). The pigeons were bought from the local markets of Mosul city through random visits to these markets. "
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    ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to investigate for the first time the prevalence and pathology of spontaneous atherosclerosis in free – living pigeons in Mosul, Iraq. A hundred apparently healthy, 1-1.5 year old both sex pigeons of local breed free – living used. Effects of factors such as weight, sex, age and health status on prevalence of the condition were also studied. Prevalence of naturally occurring atherosclerosis was 10%. Grossly, the heart was hypertrophied and of firm consistency, aorta and coronary arteries were prominent and cordlike with thickened walls. Microscopically, lipid – laden "foam cells" were seen throughout the thickened tunica media and intima. Damage of the elastic lamellae and hypertrophy of the smooth muscle cells were also noted. Spontaneous atherosclerosis occurred more frequently in old pigeons. No effect was found for sex, weight, and health status of the pigeons on prevalence and pathology of spontaneous atherosclerosis. It was concluded that spontaneous atherosclerosis is fairly common in local pigeons and it occurred more commonly in old pigeons. Sex, weight, and health status of the pigeons did not constitute risk factors for the occurrence of spontaneous atherosclerosis.
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    • "A total maximum of 3 ml blood per bird was collected from the brachial vein using pre-heparinized syringes and sterilized needles. To obtain haematocrit values, which provide information about health status and nutritional condition of an animal (e.g., Coles, 1997), a fraction of the second blood sample was transferred soon after sampling to a pre-heparinized capillary and stored on ice to be later centrifuged at 11,800 rpm for 8 min. The remaining blood samples were stored on ice for up to 6 h before being centrifuged at 3000 rpm for 5 min to gain the blood plasma which was then stored at À20° C for later analysis. "
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    ABSTRACT: The endangered, endemic Yellow-eyed penguin (Megadyptes antipodes) is one of the flagship species for New Zealand's wildlife tourism, and recently concern has been raised that tourism-related pressures may be becoming too great. We compared two neighbouring breeding areas exposed to different levels of human disturbance. Penguins at the site exposed to unregulated tourism showed significantly lower breeding success and fledging weights than those in an area visited infrequently for monitoring purposes only. High parental baseline corticosterone concentrations correlated with lower fledgling weights at both sites. Stress-induced corticosterone concentrations were significantly higher at the tourist-exposed site, suggesting birds have been sensitized by frequent disturbance. Consequences are likely to include reduced juvenile survival and recruitment to the tourist site, while the changed hormonal stress responses may ultimately have an effect on adult fitness and survival. For maintenance of attractive Yellow-eyed penguin-viewing destinations we recommend that tourists stay out of breeding areas and disturbance at penguin landing beaches is reduced.
    General and Comparative Endocrinology 05/2007; 152(1):54-63. DOI:10.1016/j.ygcen.2007.02.022 · 2.67 Impact Factor
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