Avian Medicine and Surgery
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ABSTRACT: Avian mycobacteriosis is important for animal and human health; wild birds play an important role in mycobacterial species' ecology and movement. This review was aimed at reporting the role of birds in the spread of avian mycobacteriosis in human and animal populations at risk and thus a systematic review was made of PubMed, Science Direct, Scielo and Scirus databases. Mycobacteria are classified into the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex and non-tuberculous mycobacteria; the Mycobacterium avium complex represents the most important part of the latter because it is primarily responsible for mycobacterial infection in wild birds and is a potential pathogen for mammals, especially for immunocompromised patients. The clinical signs in birds are variable as it is a chronic and debilitating disease, involving emaciated carcasses, white nodules in different organs and microscopically it presents granulomatosous multifocal inflammation. Diagnosis begins by suspicion based on clinical signs and finishes with microbiological confirmation. New diagnostic techniques include testing with DNA-RNA probes. No effective treatment is currently available and chemoprophylaxis on suspicion of infection is not recommended at the start; these factors increase the potential risk of mycobacteriosis becoming one of the most frequently documented zoonotic diseases which is difficult to treat in birds and humans. Recent concern regarding mycobacterial infection lies in the increased frequency of these opportunistic infections occurring in immunocompromised individuals and these infections' potential impact on bird conservation, this being increased by greater contact between humans and wild and captive birds.Revista de salud publica (Bogota, Colombia) 12/2009; 11(1):134-44.
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ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to investigate for the first time the prevalence and pathology of spontaneous atherosclerosis in free – living pigeons in Mosul, Iraq. A hundred apparently healthy, 1-1.5 year old both sex pigeons of local breed free – living used. Effects of factors such as weight, sex, age and health status on prevalence of the condition were also studied. Prevalence of naturally occurring atherosclerosis was 10%. Grossly, the heart was hypertrophied and of firm consistency, aorta and coronary arteries were prominent and cordlike with thickened walls. Microscopically, lipid – laden "foam cells" were seen throughout the thickened tunica media and intima. Damage of the elastic lamellae and hypertrophy of the smooth muscle cells were also noted. Spontaneous atherosclerosis occurred more frequently in old pigeons. No effect was found for sex, weight, and health status of the pigeons on prevalence and pathology of spontaneous atherosclerosis. It was concluded that spontaneous atherosclerosis is fairly common in local pigeons and it occurred more commonly in old pigeons. Sex, weight, and health status of the pigeons did not constitute risk factors for the occurrence of spontaneous atherosclerosis.Pakistan Veterinary Journal. 01/2011;
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ABSTRACT: This paper reports on two fatal cases of Salmonella Typhimurium phage type DT160 infection in Moluccan cockatoos (Cacatua moluccensis) from a zoological collection in Italy. No previous clinical signs were observed in birds before death, except for anorexia and mild diarrhea in one bird. At post mortem, necrotic foci surrounded by a hyperemic halo were observed in lungs, heart, liver, spleen, kidneys, and intestine. Microscopically, heterophils and macrophages with rare lymphocyte infiltration associated with gram-negative, rod-shaped bacteria aggregates were detected in necrotic foci. Bacteriology confirmed the presence of Salmonella Typhimurium phage type DT160 in the tissues of birds. The source of Salmonella Typhimurium in these birds remains unknown, but the authors emphasize the need to better control Salmonella infections in these avian species because they are important zoonotic agents and responsible for disease in animals and humans. This is the first documentation of Salmonella Typhimurium phage type DT160 infection in Moluccan cockatoos.Avian Diseases 03/2010; 54(1):131-5. · 1.73 Impact Factor
COMPTES RENDUS DE LIVRES
Altman RB, Clubb SL, Dorrestein GM, Queensberry K.
Avian Medicine and Surgery. WB Saunders Company,
Toronto, 1997. 1070 pp. ISBN 0-7216-5446-0. $138.00.
This text is a welcome literary addition to the field of
avian medicine, more specifically to pet bird medicine.
The emphasis is on psittacines, which is usually the
major portion of clinical practice, but there are also
sections on the common problems of other families,
such as passerines, columbiformes, and raptors.
The text is divided into 9 sections. The 1st section
deals with "The Normal Bird." Chapters cover a variety
of topics from nutrition to pediatric husbandry and
medicine. The chapter on "Laws and Regulations
Affecting Aviculture and the Pet Bird Industry" is par-
ticularly useful for those just getting involved in avian
Section 2 deals with diagnostics, hospital techniques,
and supportive care. Here the day-to-day procedures in
clinical practice are discussed. Section 3 deals with
infectious diseases. Section 4, on noninfectious dis-
eases, uses a systems approach, which will be familiar
to many Ontario Veterinary College graduates. For
example, the chapter on the gastrointestinal tract is
split into anatomy, physiology, and then diseases.
Section 5 covers pharmacology and therapeutics,
and includes a formulary. Because most drugs used
in avian medicine are "off-label," it is helpful to have
dosages for a large number of drugs. As more drugs are
used in different species, it is becoming apparent that
metabolism of drugs can vary, and clinicians should
use caution when treating uncommon species of birds.
The surgical section has 2 particularly good chapters
on beak repair. The last 3 sections cover emergency
medicine, specific species, and the human-avian bond.
The appendices cover hematology and biochemical
reference ranges, adult bird weights, and scientific
names of common species. As this is an American text,
the reference ranges are in conventional units, as opposed
to SI units. To their credit, the authors have included an
appendix for conversions to SI units, but if this is meant
to be an "international" text, I feel it would have been
worth the extra few pages to print the reference values
in both units.
Overall, this is a very informative text, and I would
recommend it to anyone interested in avian medicine.
Reviewed by Robin Roscoe, DVM, DipL ABVP (Avian),
Lynwood Animal Hospital, Nepean, Ontario K2H 6L2.
Marder A. The Complete Dog Owner's Manual: How
to Raise a Happy, Healthy Dog. Broadway Books,
New York, 1997. 224pp.ISBN 0-7679-0001-4. $25.00 US.
ritten by a veterinarian for present and prospective
dog owners, this book is a comprehensive, highly
informative, and superbly illustrated guide to all aspects
of owning and loving a dog. Information ranges from
choosing the right dog to feeding tips to health care
and training, and gives lots of good, practical advice. The
book also includes a detailed guide to more than 100 pop-
ular dog breeds. The table of contents divides the book
into its 5 logical components, choosing your dog, health
care, training, breeding and showing, and guide to
breeds. In addition, there is a glossary of "dog world"
terms, a well-organized and comprehensive index, and
a directory of information. The latter includes street
addresses, telephone numbers and email addresses for
kennel clubs, humane societies, and veterinary associ-
ations for North America, Great Britain, and Australia.
In the first section, the author recognizes the reward-
ing experience that can result from the relationship
between a person and a dog. To give this relationship the
best chance of success, a pet must be chosen carefully,
considering the person's lifestyle, home environment, and
family needs. Whether to choose a puppy or a mature dog
is covered in considerable detail and emphasizes the
importance of selecting a healthy animal.
Health is described in easily understood terms that are
applied to the dog's visible parts from the nose to the tip
of the tail. Sound advice is provided on preparing for the
arrival of the new dog. The basic accessories are dis-
cussed from the perspective of an appropriate bed, food
and water bowls, collars, leashes, and identification
tags. Because puppies and dogs can get themselves
into a lot of trouble, methods of dog-proofing the home
are dealt with in a logical and practical manner. Because
the author is a veterinarian, the information given on
nutrition and feeding, exercising, grooming, and whether
or not to neuter is accurate and credible. The section on
health care emphasizes the importance of having your
dog checked by a veterinarian, while providing the dog
owner with the tools to detect illness in his or her pet. The
signs of good health are compared with symptoms of the
common canine ailments ranging from obstructed anal
glands to flea infestations to serious illnesses, such as
acute gastric torsion. Prevention of disease and illness
is stressed and first aid techniques are recommended for
the common emergencies, such as heatstroke, chok-
ing, suspected poisoning, and other types of accidents.
The book deals with training, breeding, and showing
of dogs in a well illustrated step-by-step guide. How dogs
Can Vet J Volume 39, October 1998