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Avian Medicine and Surgery

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    ABSTRACT: Avian mycobacteriosis is important for animal and human health; wild birds play an important role in mycobacterial species' ecology and movement. This review was aimed at reporting the role of birds in the spread of avian mycobacteriosis in human and animal populations at risk and thus a systematic review was made of PubMed, Science Direct, Scielo and Scirus databases. Mycobacteria are classified into the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex and non-tuberculous mycobacteria; the Mycobacterium avium complex represents the most important part of the latter because it is primarily responsible for mycobacterial infection in wild birds and is a potential pathogen for mammals, especially for immunocompromised patients. The clinical signs in birds are variable as it is a chronic and debilitating disease, involving emaciated carcasses, white nodules in different organs and microscopically it presents granulomatosous multifocal inflammation. Diagnosis begins by suspicion based on clinical signs and finishes with microbiological confirmation. New diagnostic techniques include testing with DNA-RNA probes. No effective treatment is currently available and chemoprophylaxis on suspicion of infection is not recommended at the start; these factors increase the potential risk of mycobacteriosis becoming one of the most frequently documented zoonotic diseases which is difficult to treat in birds and humans. Recent concern regarding mycobacterial infection lies in the increased frequency of these opportunistic infections occurring in immunocompromised individuals and these infections' potential impact on bird conservation, this being increased by greater contact between humans and wild and captive birds.
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    ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to investigate for the first time the prevalence and pathology of spontaneous atherosclerosis in free – living pigeons in Mosul, Iraq. A hundred apparently healthy, 1-1.5 year old both sex pigeons of local breed free – living used. Effects of factors such as weight, sex, age and health status on prevalence of the condition were also studied. Prevalence of naturally occurring atherosclerosis was 10%. Grossly, the heart was hypertrophied and of firm consistency, aorta and coronary arteries were prominent and cordlike with thickened walls. Microscopically, lipid – laden "foam cells" were seen throughout the thickened tunica media and intima. Damage of the elastic lamellae and hypertrophy of the smooth muscle cells were also noted. Spontaneous atherosclerosis occurred more frequently in old pigeons. No effect was found for sex, weight, and health status of the pigeons on prevalence and pathology of spontaneous atherosclerosis. It was concluded that spontaneous atherosclerosis is fairly common in local pigeons and it occurred more commonly in old pigeons. Sex, weight, and health status of the pigeons did not constitute risk factors for the occurrence of spontaneous atherosclerosis.
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    ABSTRACT: This paper reports on two fatal cases of Salmonella Typhimurium phage type DT160 infection in Moluccan cockatoos (Cacatua moluccensis) from a zoological collection in Italy. No previous clinical signs were observed in birds before death, except for anorexia and mild diarrhea in one bird. At post mortem, necrotic foci surrounded by a hyperemic halo were observed in lungs, heart, liver, spleen, kidneys, and intestine. Microscopically, heterophils and macrophages with rare lymphocyte infiltration associated with gram-negative, rod-shaped bacteria aggregates were detected in necrotic foci. Bacteriology confirmed the presence of Salmonella Typhimurium phage type DT160 in the tissues of birds. The source of Salmonella Typhimurium in these birds remains unknown, but the authors emphasize the need to better control Salmonella infections in these avian species because they are important zoonotic agents and responsible for disease in animals and humans. This is the first documentation of Salmonella Typhimurium phage type DT160 infection in Moluccan cockatoos.
    Avian Diseases 03/2010; 54(1):131-5. · 1.73 Impact Factor

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