SSRIs for Hot Flashes: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Trials
ABSTRACT Hot flashes are the most commonly reported vasomotor symptom during the peri- and early post-menopausal period.
To systematically review, appraise and summarize the evidence of the impact of different SSRIs on peri-menopausal hot flashes in healthy women in randomized, controlled trials.
A comprehensive literature search was conducted of MEDLINE™, EMBASE, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Web of Science and Scopus through March 2013. Two independent reviewers selected studies and extracted data. Random effects meta-analysis was used to pool outcomes across studies, and Bayesian mixed treatment methods were used to rank SSRIs in terms of effectiveness.
We included a total of 11 randomized controlled trials with good methodological quality enrolling 2,069 menopausal and post-menopausal women (follow-up 1-9 months, mean age 36-76 years, mean time since menopause 2.3-6.6 years). Compared with placebo, SSRIs were associated with a statistically significant decrease in hot flash frequency (difference in means -0.93; 95 % CI -1.46 to -0.37; I(2) = 21 %) and severity assessed by various scales (standardized difference in means -0.34; 95 % CI -0.59 to -0.10; I(2) = 47 %). Adverse events did not differ from placebo. Mixed treatment comparison analysis demonstrated the superiority of escitalopram compared to other SSRIs in terms of efficacy.
SSRI use is associated with modest improvement in the severity and frequency of hot flashes but can also be associated with the typical profile of SSRI adverse effects.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Objective A number of learned societies, including the International Menopause Society, have produced position statements pertaining to the use of postmenopausal hormone therapy. These documents are highly informative but are not designed for use by primary-care physicians and nurse practitioners during routine consultations. Our aim was to produce a toolkit for practitioners that could be used during office consultations to assist them in the assessment and management of the menopause. Methods We used clinical experience in primary care, combined with published diagnostic algorithms, positions statements from learned medical societies and relevant peer-reviewed literature to develop assessment and management algorithms relevant to the primary care of women age 40 years and older. Results The resultant ‘Practitioner’s Toolkit for Managing the Menopause’ comprises algorithms for the reasons why a woman might present, determination of menopausal status, key information that should be ascertained, issues that may influence treatment decision-making, hormonal and non-hormonal treatment options, symptom management and patient review, and a brief supporting document. Conclusions We believe these algorithms and supporting document provide an accessible desktop tool for health-care practitioners caring for women at midlife. The toolkit has been endorsed by the International Menopause Society for global use.Climacteric 07/2014; 17(5). DOI:10.3109/13697137.2014.929651
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Objective: To review 2 recently approved therapies for vasomotor symptoms (VMSs) of menopause. Data Sources: PubMed searches (June 2003 to May 2014) were conducted using the keywords paroxetine vasomotor and bazedoxifene vasomotor. References from relevant articles were reviewed for pertinent citations that were not identified in the PubMed search. Study Selection and Data Extraction: Phase 3 clinical trials of recently approved hormonal and nonhormonal therapies for the treatment of VMSs of menopause were selected. Studies that evaluated the use of paroxetine nnesylate or bazedoxifene (BZA)/conjugated estrogens (CEs) for VMSs were included. Data Synthesis: Four studies for BZA/CEs were identified. One published report of low-dose paroxetine mesylate was identified that was a combined analysis of 2 phase 3 studies. Both agents significantly decrease the incidence of hot flushes compared with placebo and are approved for the treatment of moderate to severe VMSs associated with menopause. BZA/CEs is only approved for women with an intact uterus. In all circumstances, the use of BZA/CEs should be limited to the shortest duration possible. Paroxetine mesylate was not studied head-to-head against hormone therapy, but the magnitude of its effect on VMSs is less than expected with hormone therapy. Conclusions: BZA/CEs is an effective hormonal therapy for treating VMSs in women with an intact uterus. Paroxetine mesylate is the first nonhormonal therapy that the FDA has approved for VMSs, making both viable options for the treatment of VMSs of menopause.Annals of Pharmacotherapy 07/2014; 48(10). DOI:10.1177/1060028014543099
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Objective: Given that the Women's Health Initiative reported in 2002 increased risks of breast cancer and cardiovascular events with hormone therapy (HT) use and many women discontinued use, we assessed the use and perceived efficacy of complementary and alternative medicines (CAMs) formenopausal symptom relief after discontinuation of HT. Methods: Postmenopausal women aged 50 to 65 years within the United Kingdom Collaborative Trial of Ovarian Cancer Screening who were willing to take part in a secondary study were mailed a survey to evaluate menopausal symptom management. Use and perceived efficacy of CAMs for relief of vasomotor symptoms (VMS) upon discontinuation of HT were examined. Results: The survey was sent to 15,000 women between July 2 and July 9, 2008. Seventy-one percent (10,662 of 15,000) responded, and 10,607 women with complete data were included. Ever use of HT was reported by 60.2% (6,383 of 10,607). At survey completion, 79.3% (5,060 of 6,383) had discontinued HT, with 89.7% (4,540 of 5,060) of the latter reporting using one or more CAMs for VMS relief. About 70.4% (3,561 of 5,060) used herbal remedies, with evening primrose oil (48.6%; 2,205 of 4,540) and black cohosh (30.3%; 1,377 of 4,540) being most commonly used. Exercise was used by 68.2% (3,098 of 4,540), whereas other behavioral/lifestyle approaches were less frequently reported (13.9%; 629 of 4,540). Contrarily, more women (57%-72%) rated behavioral/lifestyle approaches as effective compared with herbal remedies (28%-46%; rating >= 4 on a "helpfulness" scale from 1-10). Among medical treatments, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors were used by 10% and rated effective by 72.1%. Conclusions: Although more women use over-the-counter medicines, behavioral/lifestyle approaches seem to provide better relief of VMS. There is a pressing need for better evidence-based lay information to support decision-making on CAM use for relief of VMS.Menopause 10/2014; 22(4). DOI:10.1097/GME.0000000000000330