Antibiotic prescribing for adults in ambulatory care in the USA, 2007-09.
ABSTRACT To determine patterns of ambulatory antibiotic prescribing in US adults, including the use of broad-spectrum versus narrow-spectrum agents, to provide a description of the diagnoses for which antibiotics are prescribed and to identify patient and physician factors associated with broad-spectrum antibiotic prescribing.
We used data for patients aged ≥18 years from the National Ambulatory and National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Surveys (2007-09). These are nationally representative surveys of patient visits to offices, hospital outpatient departments and emergency departments (EDs) in the USA, collectively referred to as ambulatory visits. We determined the types of antibiotics prescribed, including the use of broad-spectrum versus narrow-spectrum antibiotics, and examined prescribing patterns by diagnoses. We used multivariable logistic regression to identify factors associated with broad-spectrum antibiotic prescribing.
Antibiotics were prescribed during 101 million (95% CI: 91-111 million) ambulatory visits annually, representing 10% of all visits. Broad-spectrum agents were prescribed during 61% of visits in which antibiotics were prescribed. The most commonly prescribed antibiotics were quinolones (25% of antibiotics), macrolides (20%) and aminopenicillins (12%). Antibiotics were most commonly prescribed for respiratory conditions (41% of antibiotics), skin/mucosal conditions (18%) and urinary tract infections (9%). In multivariable analysis, among patients prescribed antibiotics, broad-spectrum agents were more likely to be prescribed than narrow-spectrum antibiotics for respiratory infections for which antibiotics are rarely indicated (e.g. bronchitis), during visits to EDs and for patients ≥60 years.
Broad-spectrum agents constitute the majority of antibiotics in ambulatory care. More than 25% of prescriptions are for conditions for which antibiotics are rarely indicated. Antibiotic stewardship interventions targeting respiratory and non-respiratory conditions are needed in ambulatory care.
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ABSTRACT: Appropriate selection of antibiotic drugs is critical to optimize treatment of infections and limit the spread of antibiotic resistance. To better inform public health efforts to improve prescribing of antibiotic drugs, we conducted in-depth interviews with 36 primary care providers in the United States (physicians, nurse practitioners, and physician assistants) to explore knowledge, attitudes, and self-reported practices regarding antibiotic drug resistance and antibiotic drug selection for common infections. Participants were generally familiar with guideline recommendations for antibiotic drug selection for common infections, but did not always comply with them. Reasons for nonadherence included the belief that nonrecommended agents are more likely to cure an infection, concern for patient or parent satisfaction, and fear of infectious complications. Providers inconsistently defined broad- and narrow-spectrum antibiotic agents. There was widespread concern for antibiotic resistance; however, it was not commonly considered when selecting therapy. Strategies to encourage use of first-line agents are needed in addition to limiting unnecessary prescribing of antibiotic drugs.Emerging infectious diseases. 12/2014; 20(12):2041-7.
- Clinical Infectious Diseases 07/2014; · 9.37 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: To examine the prevalence of multidrug-resistant (MDR) urinary Escherichia coli among US outpatients and to assess the antimicrobial activity of oral antibiotics commonly used to treat urinary tract infections (UTIs) against MDR isolates.Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy 07/2014; · 5.34 Impact Factor