Antibiotic prescribing for adults in ambulatory care in the USA, 2007-09
School of Medicine, University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA, USA. Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
(Impact Factor: 5.31).
07/2013; 69(1). DOI: 10.1093/jac/dkt301
To determine patterns of ambulatory antibiotic prescribing in US adults, including the use of broad-spectrum versus narrow-spectrum agents, to provide a description of the diagnoses for which antibiotics are prescribed and to identify patient and physician factors associated with broad-spectrum antibiotic prescribing.
We used data for patients aged ≥18 years from the National Ambulatory and National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Surveys (2007-09). These are nationally representative surveys of patient visits to offices, hospital outpatient departments and emergency departments (EDs) in the USA, collectively referred to as ambulatory visits. We determined the types of antibiotics prescribed, including the use of broad-spectrum versus narrow-spectrum antibiotics, and examined prescribing patterns by diagnoses. We used multivariable logistic regression to identify factors associated with broad-spectrum antibiotic prescribing.
Antibiotics were prescribed during 101 million (95% CI: 91-111 million) ambulatory visits annually, representing 10% of all visits. Broad-spectrum agents were prescribed during 61% of visits in which antibiotics were prescribed. The most commonly prescribed antibiotics were quinolones (25% of antibiotics), macrolides (20%) and aminopenicillins (12%). Antibiotics were most commonly prescribed for respiratory conditions (41% of antibiotics), skin/mucosal conditions (18%) and urinary tract infections (9%). In multivariable analysis, among patients prescribed antibiotics, broad-spectrum agents were more likely to be prescribed than narrow-spectrum antibiotics for respiratory infections for which antibiotics are rarely indicated (e.g. bronchitis), during visits to EDs and for patients ≥60 years.
Broad-spectrum agents constitute the majority of antibiotics in ambulatory care. More than 25% of prescriptions are for conditions for which antibiotics are rarely indicated. Antibiotic stewardship interventions targeting respiratory and non-respiratory conditions are needed in ambulatory care.
Available from: Monica M Farley
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ABSTRACT: Background. Antibiotic use predisposes patients to Clostridium difficile infections (CDI), and approximately 32% of these infections are community-associated (CA) CDI. The population-level impact of antibiotic use on adult CA-CDI rates is not well described. Methods. We used 2011 active population- and laboratory-based surveillance data from 9 US geographic locations to identify adult CA-CDI cases, defined as C difficile-positive stool specimens (by toxin or molecular assay) collected from outpatients or from patients ≤3 days after hospital admission. All patients were surveillance area residents and aged ≥20 years with no positive test ≤8 weeks prior and no overnight stay in a healthcare facility ≤12 weeks prior. Outpatient oral antibiotic prescriptions dispensed in 2010 were obtained from the IMS Health Xponent database. Regression models examined the association between outpatient antibiotic prescribing and adult CA-CDI rates. Methods. Healthcare providers prescribed 5.2 million courses of antibiotics among adults in the surveillance population in 2010, for an average of 0.73 per person. Across surveillance sites, antibiotic prescription rates (0.50-0.88 prescriptions per capita) and unadjusted CA-CDI rates (40.7-139.3 cases per 100 000 persons) varied. In regression modeling, reducing antibiotic prescribing rates by 10% among persons ≥20 years old was associated with a 17% (95% confidence interval, 6.0%-26.3%; P = .032) decrease in CA-CDI rates after adjusting for age, gender, race, and type of diagnostic assay. Reductions in prescribing penicillins and amoxicillin/clavulanic acid were associated with the greatest decreases in CA-CDI rates. Conclusions and Relevance. Community-associated CDI prevention should include reducing unnecessary outpatient antibiotic use. A modest reduction of 10% in outpatient antibiotic prescribing can have a disproportionate impact on reducing CA-CDI rates.
IDWeek 2013 Meeting of the Infectious Diseases Society of America; 10/2013
Available from: Farah Naz
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ABSTRACT: The causes of antibiotic resistance are complex and include human behaviour at many levels of society; the consequences affect everybody in the world. Similarities with climate change are evident. Many efforts have been made to describe the many different facets of antibiotic resistance and the interventions needed to meet the challenge. However, coordinated action is largely absent, especially at the political level, both nationally and internationally. Antibiotics paved the way for unprecedented medical and societal developments, and are today indispensible in all health systems. Achievements in modern medicine, such as major surgery, organ transplantation, treatment of preterm babies, and cancer chemotherapy, which we today take for granted, would not be possible without access to effective treatment for bacterial infections. Within just a few years, we might be faced with dire setbacks, medically, socially, and economically, unless real and unprecedented global coordinated actions are immediately taken. Here, we describe the global situation of antibiotic resistance, its major causes and consequences, and identify key areas in which action is urgently needed.
The Lancet Infectious Diseases 11/2013; 13(12). DOI:10.1016/S1473-3099(13)70318-9 · 22.43 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Inappropriate use of antibiotics for acute respiratory tract infections (ARTIs) has decreased in many outpatient settings. For patients presenting to US Emergency Departments (EDs) with ARTIs, antibiotic utilization patterns are unclear. We conducted a retrospective cohort study of ED patients from 2001-2010 using data from the National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Survey (NHAMCS). We identified patients presenting to US EDs with ARTIs and calculated rates of antibiotic utilization. Diagnoses were classified as antibiotic-appropriate (otitis media, sinusitis, pharyngitis, tonsillitis, and non-viral pneumonia); or antibiotic-inappropriate (nasopharyngitis, unspecified upper respiratory tract infection, bronchitis or bronchiolitis, viral pneumonia, and influenza).There were 126 million ED visits with a diagnosis of ARTI, and antibiotics were prescribed in 61%. Between 2001 and 2010, antibiotic utilization decreased for patients aged <5 presenting with antibiotic-inappropriate ARTI (RR 0.94; CI 0.88-1.00). Utilization also decreased significantly for antibiotic-inappropriate ARTI patients aged 5-19 years (RR 0.89; CI 0.85-0.94). Utilization remained stable for antibiotic-inappropriate ARTI among adult patients aged 20-64 years (RR 0.99; CI 0.97-1.01). Among adults, rates of quinolone use for ARTI increased significantly from 83 per 1,000 visits in 2001-2002 to 105 per 1,000 in 2009-2010 (RR 1.08; CI 1.03-1.14). Although significant progress has been made toward reduction of antibiotic utilization for pediatric patients with ARTI, the proportion of adult ARTI patients receiving antibiotics in US EDs is inappropriately high. Institution of measures to reduce inappropriate antibiotic use in the ED setting is warranted.
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 12/2013; 58(3). DOI:10.1128/AAC.02039-13 · 4.48 Impact Factor
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