What is the Least Painful Method of Anesthetizing a Peripheral IV Site?
ABSTRACT The placement of an intravenous (IV) catheter for the administration of fluids, blood products, and medications is a common intervention for surgical procedures and perianesthesia patients. Although the placement of a peripheral IV may be routine for perianesthesia nurses, it is important to address the patient's level of pain related to the procedure. One technique to diminish the discomfort associated with the IV insertion is anesthetizing the site. The purpose of this study was to compare three methods for anesthetizing peripheral IV catheter sites before insertion to determine which method provides optimal patient comfort during the anesthetizing and IV catheter insertion process. The findings demonstrate that there was no statistical difference in pain when anesthetizing the site using the three methods. However, there was a difference with the IV insertion process. Using 1% lidocaine resulted in the least painful IV insertion.
- The American Journal of Nursing 10/1997; 97(9):20. DOI:10.1097/00000446-199709000-00017 · 1.30 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: This study compared the efficacy of a common medication diluent, bacteriostatic 0.9% sodium chloride containing the preservative benzyl alcohol with lidocaine hydrochloride 1% as an intradermal pretreatment for the relief of pain associated with intravenous cannulation. Forty adult presurgical patients requiring two large bore intravenous catheters were used. They served as their own controls. The inner aspect of one forearm received the usual pretreatment, lidocaine hydrochloride 1%, and the inner aspect of the opposite arm received intradermal pretreatment with bacteriostatic 0.9% sodium chloride with the preservative benzyl alcohol. Intravenous cannulation was accomplished on the first attempt, and pain reported with cannulation was rated using a visual analogue scale (VAS). A paired t test was used to compare differences in VAS scores with the pretreatment bacteriostatic 0.9% sodium chloride containing the preservative benzyl alcohol with the pretreatment lidocaine hydrochloride 1%. Analysis of the data revealed no significant difference in the report of perceived pain of intravenous cannulation based on the intradermal pretreatment. These findings suggest that intradermal bacteriostatic 0.9% sodium chloride containing the preservative benzyl alcohol is as effective as intradermal lidocaine hydrochloride 1% in the attenuation of intravenous cannulation pain.AANA journal 01/1999; 66(6):583-5.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The eutectic mixture of local anesthetics (EMLA), by producing dermal anesthesia through contact with intact skin, has become a major indication for the reduction of pain experienced during venipuncture (VE) and intravenous (IV) insertion. The purpose of the study was to determine the mean effect sizes and moderators of EMLA cream application in reducing VE and IV insertion pain. A meta-analysis of 20 studies was conducted to determine the magnitude of the effect of EMLA cream on VE and IV insertion pain. Effect sizes were calculated three ways: weighted, unweighted, and weighted by quality index score. Potential moderating variables of sample age, premedication, therapist control, insertion site, application duration, research design, pain scale, and funding, were investigated for their influence on EMLA's effect. EMLA cream had a large significant effect on VE pain (d = 1.05) with a 95% confidence interval from.92 to 1.34 and a large significant effect on IV insertion pain (d = 1.04) with a 95% confidence interval from.84 to 1.46. Subject age (child versus adult), type of pain scale, number of therapists, location of insertion site, premedication, funding, or study design did not appear to act as effect modifiers. EMLA cream can significantly decrease VE and IV insertion pain in 85% of the population.Nursing Research 03/2002; 51(2):119-24. DOI:10.1097/00006199-200203000-00008 · 1.36 Impact Factor