An update on safety and immunogenicity of vaccines containing emulsion-based adjuvants.
ABSTRACT With the exception of alum, emulsion-based vaccine adjuvants have been administered to far more people than any other adjuvant, especially since the 2009 H1N1 influenza pandemic. The number of clinical safety and immunogenicity evaluations of vaccines containing emulsion adjuvants has correspondingly mushroomed. In this review, the authors introduce emulsion adjuvant composition and history before detailing the most recent findings from clinical and postmarketing data regarding the effects of emulsion adjuvants on vaccine immunogenicity and safety, with emphasis on the most widely distributed emulsion adjuvants, MF59® and AS03. The authors also present a summary of other emulsion adjuvants in clinical development and indicate promising avenues for future emulsion-based adjuvant development. Overall, emulsion adjuvants have demonstrated potent adjuvant activity across a number of disease indications along with acceptable safety profiles.
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ABSTRACT: Alpha (α)-tocopherol is a component of a new generation of squalene-containing oil-in-water (SQ/W) emulsion adjuvants that have been licensed for use in certain influenza vaccines. Since regulatory pharmacokinetic studies are not routinely required for influenza vaccines, the in vivo fate of this vaccine constituent is largely unknown. In this study, we constructed a physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model for emulsified α-tocopherol in human adults and infants. An independent sheep PBPK model was also developed to inform the local preferential lymphatic transfer and for the purpose of model evaluation. The PBPK model predicts that α-tocopherol will be removed from the injection site within 24h and rapidly transfer predominantly into draining lymph nodes. A much lower concentration of α-tocopherol was estimated to peak in plasma within 8h. Any systemically absorbed α-tocopherol was predicted to accumulate slowly in adipose tissue, but not in other tissues. Model evaluation and uncertainty analyses indicated acceptable fit, with the fraction of dose taken up into the lymphatics as most influential on plasma concentration. In summary, this study estimates the in vivo fate of α-tocopherol in adjuvanted influenza vaccine, may be relevant in explaining its immunodynamics in humans, and informs current regulatory risk-benefit analyses. Published by Elsevier Inc.Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology 02/2015; 33(3). DOI:10.1016/j.yrtph.2015.02.005 · 2.14 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS), an emerging infectious disease caused by MERS coronavirus (MERS-CoV), has garnered worldwide attention as a consequence of its continuous spread and pandemic potential, making the development of effective vaccines a high priority. We previously demonstrated that residues 377-588 of MERS-CoV spike (S) protein receptor-binding domain (RBD) is a very promising MERS subunit vaccine candidate, capable of inducing potent neutralization antibody responses. In this study, we sought to identify an adjuvant that optimally enhanced the immunogenicity of S377-588 protein fused with Fc of human IgG (S377-588-Fc). Specifically, we compared several commercially available adjuvants, including Freund's adjuvant, aluminum, Monophosphoryl lipid A, Montanide ISA51 and MF59 with regard to their capacity to enhance the immunogenicity of this subunit vaccine. In the absence of adjuvant, S377-588-Fc alone induced readily detectable neutralizing antibody and T-cell responses in immunized mice. However, incorporating an adjuvant improved its immunogenicity. Particularly, among the aforementioned adjuvants evaluated, MF59 is the most potent as judged by its superior ability to induce the highest titers of IgG, IgG1 and IgG2a subtypes, and neutralizing antibodies. The addition of MF59 significantly augmented the immunogenicity of S377-588-Fc to induce strong IgG and neutralizing antibody responses as well as protection against MERS-CoV infection in mice, suggesting that MF59 is an optimal adjuvant for MERS-CoV RBD-based subunit vaccines.Cellular & Molecular Immunology advance online publication, 2 February 2015; doi:10.1038/cmi.2015.03.Cellular & molecular immunology 02/2015; DOI:10.1038/cmi.2015.03 · 4.19 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: We describe the development, analytical characterization, stability and preclinical efficacy of AF04, a combination adjuvant comprising the synthetic Toll-Like Receptor 4 (TLR4) agonist, E6020, formulated in AF03, a thermoreversible squalene emulsion. By using AF04 with the recombinant major outer membrane protein of Chlamydia trachomatis (Ct-MOMP) and with the recombinant surface glycoprotein gB from human cytomegalovirus (CMV-gB) as model antigens, we show that AF03 and E6020 can synergize to augment specific antibody and Th-1 cellular immune responses in mice. In terms of formulation, we observe that the method used to incorporate E6020 into AF03 affects its partition between the oil and water phases of the emulsion which in turn has a significant impact on the tolerability (IV pyrogenicity test in rabbits) of this novel adjuvant combination. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.International Journal of Pharmaceutics 03/2015; 486(1-2). DOI:10.1016/j.ijpharm.2015.03.028 · 3.79 Impact Factor