Multistage interconnection networks (MINs) are used to connect processors and memories in large-scale multiprocessor systems. MINs have also been proposed as switching fabrics in ATM networks. A MIN consists of several stages of small crossbar switching elements (SEs). A number of buffering schemes are used in the SEs to increase the throughput of MINs and prevent internal loss of packets. the objective of this article is to compare the performance of MINs using different buffering schemes in the presence of uniform and nonuniform traffic patterns. The results obtained from the study will help computer architects and network designers in choosing appropriate buffering strategies for fabric design and configuration of MINs. The normalized throughput, packet loss, and packet mean delay have been used as the performance measures for comparing the different buffering strategies. Results show that the performance of split-shared and output-buffered MINs is considerably better than that of input-buffered MINs when the hot request rate is low. However, the performance is identical for all the buffering schemes when the hot request rate is medium or high.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: In future, multicore processors with hundreds of cores will collaborate on a single chip. Then, more advanced network-on-chip (NoC) topologies will be needed than today's shared busses for dual core processors. Multistage interconnection networks, which are already used in parallel computers, seem to be a promising alternative. In this paper, a new network topology is introduced that particularly applies to multicast traffic in multicore systems and parallel computers. Those multilayer multistage interconnection networks are described by defining the main parameters of such a topology. Performance and costs of the new architecture are determined and compared to other network topologies. Network traffic consisting of constant size packets and of varying size packets is investigated. It is shown that all kinds of multicast traffic particularly benefit from the new topology.
"Markov chains are also used in  to compare MIN performance under different buffering schemes. Hot spot traffic performance in MINs is examined by   deals with multicast in Clos networks as a subclass of MINs. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Banyan Networks are a major class of Multistage Interconnection Networks (MINs). They have been widely used as efficient interconnection
structures for parallel computer systems, as well as switching nodes for high-speed communication networks. Their performance
is mainly determined by their communication throughput and their mean packet delay. In this paper we use a performance estimation
model that is based on a universal performance factor, which includes the importance aspect of each of the above individual
performance factors (throughput and delay) in the design process of a MIN. The model can also uniformly be applied to several
representative networks. The complexity of the model requires to be investigated by time-consuming simulations. In this paper
we study a typical (8X8) Baseline Banyan Switch that consists of (2X2) Switching Elements (SEs). The objective of this simulation
is to determine the optimal buffer size for the MIN stages under different conditions
"Hsiao  and Theimer  studied MINs with uniform load traffic on inputs. Merchant  and Zhou  used Markov chains in order to approximate the behavior of them under different buffering schemes. Hot spot traffic performance was also examined by Jurczyk  and Turner  deals with multicast in Clos networks as a subclass of MINs. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Omega Networks are a famous subclass of blocking Multistage Interconnection Networks (MINs). They have been recently identified as an efficient interconnectio n network for a switching fabric of communication structures such as gigabit ethernet switch, terabit router , and ATM switch. Interconnection network performance is also a key factor when constructing multiprocessor systems. In this paper we are interested in studying the influence of the blocking mechanisms on the main performance parameters of a typical 8x8 Omega Network with finite buffer size queues. We investigate the packet loss pro bability , the throughput and the latency of an Omega Network using both the Back-pressure and the Block-and-lost blocking Models respectively. This study can be used in future in order to analyse the performance of an actual MIN , where lost packets are resubmitted in the MIN.
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