[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: As part of a cluster of articles leading up to the 2012 World Health Report and critically reflecting on the theme of "no health without research," Martin McKee and colleagues examine the question of what to do to build capacity in the many countries around the world where health research is virtually non-existent.
PLoS Medicine 04/2012; 9(4):e1001209. DOI:10.1371/journal.pmed.1001209 · 14.43 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: To examine socio-economic inequalities in malnutrition among Colombian children and adolescents, and to assess the contribution of individual-, household- and community-level factors to those inequalities. DESIGN: Cross-sectional data were used from two sources: 2005 Colombian Demographic and Health Survey and 2005 Colombian census. Malnutrition outcomes included stunting and overweight. Multilevel Poisson models were used to estimate the association between individual, household and contextual characteristics and malnutrition. Changes in prevalence ratios of the poorest quintile (v. richest) were compared to assess the contribution of different characteristics to inequalities in malnutrition. SETTING: Population-based, representative of Colombia. SUBJECTS: Children and adolescents <18 years of age (n 30 779) from the Colombian Demographic and Health Survey. RESULTS: Children and adolescents living in the poorest households were close to five times more likely to be stunted, while those from the richest households were 1·3-2·8 times more likely than their poorest counterparts to be overweight. Care practices and household characteristics, particularly mother's education, explained over one-third of socio-economic inequalities in stunting. The proportion explained by access to services was not negligible (between 6 % and 14 %). Access to sanitation was significantly associated with a lower prevalence of stunting for all age groups. Between 14 % and 32 % of socio-economic disparities in overweight were explained by maternal and household characteristics. Mother's overweight was positively associated with overweight of the child. Conclusion Socio-economic inequalities in stunting and overweight coexist among children and adolescents in Colombia. Malnutrition inequalities are largely explained by household characteristics, suggesting the need for targeted interventions.
Public Health Nutrition 09/2012; 16(09):1-16. DOI:10.1017/S1368980012004090 · 2.68 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: The present study was done to confirm the relationship between changes in food patterns and nutrition transition in three South-East Asian countries, namely the Philippines, Malaysia and Indonesia. DESIGN: This was a cross-sectional study conducted between August 2008 and August 2009 using three methods: interviews, focus group discussions and analyses of government reports. SETTING: The study was conducted in rural and urban areas in Manila and Calabanga (Philippines), Selangor and Kuala Selangor (Malaysia), and Padang, Pariaman Tanah Datar and Limapuluh Kota (West Sumatra, Indonesia). SUBJECTS: Adults aged 18 to 77 years. RESULTS: The results showed that Filipinos, Malaysians and Indonesians have retained many aspects of their traditional diets. In fact, most participants in the study considered Western-style and franchise fast foods as snack or recreational foods to be consumed once in a while only. However, a significant difference was noted between urban and rural areas in food varieties consumed. Participants in urban areas consumed more varieties of traditional foods owing to their availability and the participants' food purchasing power. Although traditional food patterns were maintained by most of the participants, more sugar and vegetable oils were consumed and added to the traditional recipes. CONCLUSIONS: The rapid nutrition transition in this region may be due, instead, to increasing food availability and food purchasing power, rather than to a shift in food preferences towards modern Western foods.
Public Health Nutrition 11/2012; 16(09):1-7. DOI:10.1017/S1368980012004569 · 2.68 Impact Factor
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