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Farmacología clínica de la ranolazina, un nuevo fármaco en el tratamiento de la angina crónica estable

Departamento de Farmacología. Facultad de Medicina. Universidad Complutense. Madrid. España.
World Pumps 06/2010; 10. DOI: 10.1016/S1131-3587(10)70014-5

ABSTRACT Ranolazine is a piperazine derivative that has a novel mechanism of action and which has been approved as add-on therapy for patients with chronic stable angina. Myocardial ischemia increases the late inward sodium ion (Na +) current in cardiac cells (INaL) and raises the intracellular sodium concentration (Na+i), which in turn activates the reverse mode of the sodium-calcium (Na+Ca2 +) exchanger and increases the intracellular calcium concentration (Ca2 + i). This increase in Na+i and Ca2 + i leads to mechanical dysfunction (i.e. diastolic pressure increases, and contractility and myocardial oxygen supply decrease), electrical dysfunction (i.e. the induction of arrhythmias) and mitochondrial dysfunction (i.e. myocardial oxygen demand increases and the rate of ATP formation decreases). Ranolazine selectively inhibits the increase in INaL, reduces intracellular Na+accumulation and the subsequent Ca2+ accumulation induced by Na+, and decreases mechanical, electrical and metabolic dysfunction in the ischemic or failing myocardium. Controlled clinical trials have shown that ranolazine has both antianginal and anti-ischemic effects in patients with chronic stable angina, and an antiarrhythmic effect in patients with acute coronary syndrome. Moreover, ranolazine reduces the glycosylated hemoglobin level in diabetic patients with coronary heart disease and improves ventricular function in patients with ischemic heart disease or chronic heart failure. Ranolazine is well tolerated, with the most common adverse effects being nausea, dizziness, asthenia and constipation. For these reasons, ranolazine is a safe and effective option for patients with chronic stable angina whose symptoms are not under control or who can not tolerate conventional anti-anginal drugs.

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