Increased risk of injury following red and yellow cards, injuries and goals in FIFA World Cups
ABSTRACT To study the relationship between potentially game-disrupting incidents (PGDIs; red and yellow cards, goals and injuries) and the injury incidence in football.
Prospective injury surveillance during three FIFA World Cups in 2002, 2006 and 2010. Official match statistics were obtained for all the matches played in the three tournaments.
2002, 2006 and 2010 FIFA World Cups.
Team physicians at the 2002, 2006 and 2010 FIFA World Cups.
Injury incidences and incidence rate ratios (IRRs).
The injury incidence was significantly higher during match periods within the minute of, or during a five-minute period following a yellow card, red card, another injury or a goal (PGDIs) than during other match periods (76.7/1000 match hours; 95% CI (66.6 to 87.9) vs 54.0/1000 match hours (46.9 to 61.9), p<0.001). There were significant differences in injury incidence between different match periods, with the highest injury incidence seen in the last 15 min of the first half (p<0.001). The PGDIs (other than injury) had a tendency to increase towards the end of the game and the most frequent PGDI was a yellow card. There was a risk ratio of 1.17 (95% CI 1.08 to 1.26) for injury, per PGDI (other injuries excluded) (p<0.001), and 1.15 (95% CI 1.06 to 1.24) after adjusted match time (p<0.001).
The injury incidence is high within the five minutes following a PGDI. For both team management and players, being aware of the increased risk of injury directly after a PGDI may be of clinical relevance, as it may enable them to take precautions in order to prevent injuries. There are significant differences in injury incidence between different match periods and game-related factors, such as PGDIs, appear partly to contribute to this variation.
SourceAvailable from: Albin Tenga[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: This study describes the characteristics of injuries and high risk situations in the Norwegian professional football league during one competitive season using Football Incident Analysis (FIA), a video based method. Videotapes and injury information were collected prospectively for 174 of 182 (96%) regular league matches during the 2000 season. Incidents where the match was interrupted due to an assumed injury were analysed using FIA to examine the characteristics of the playing situation causing the incident. Club medical staff prospectively recorded all acute injuries on a specific injury questionnaire. Each incident identified on the videotapes was cross referenced with the injury report. During the 174 matches, 425 incidents were recorded and 121 acute injuries were reported. Of these 121 injuries, 52 (43%) were identified on video including all head injuries, 58% of knee injuries, 56% of ankle injuries, and 29% of thigh injuries. Strikers were more susceptible to injury than other players and although most of the incidents and injuries resulted from duels, no single classic injury situation typical for football injuries or incidents could be recognised. However, in most cases the exposed player seemed to be unaware of the opponent challenging him for ball possession. This study shows that in spite of a thorough video analysis less than half of the injuries are identified on video. It is difficult to identify typical patterns in the playing events leading to incidents and injuries, but players seemed to be unaware of the opponent challenging them for ball possession.British journal of sports medicine 11/2004; 38(5):626-31. DOI:10.1136/bjsm.2003.007955 · 4.17 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Few prospective epidemiological studies on soccer match injuries have collected continuous data using subjects from the same group. To investigate long-term injury-induced changes during official matches in the professional Japanese soccer league. Descriptive epidemiological study. Acute injuries during official matches among top-division Japanese professional soccer leaguers were prospectively collected from 1993 to 2007. Injuries preventing player participation for 7 days or more were defined as a reportable injury. Interseasonal variations of injury rate (IR: injuries/1000/player hours) and injury pattern (type, location, circumstances, severity, injury time, positional role, and relationship to weather) were analyzed. Throughout the study period, 2947 injuries from 3984 matches occurred. Mean annual IR was 21.77/1000 player hours, and annual variance showed gradual decrement throughout the study period. The proportion of injury type and location were not significantly changed. Sprain and contusion as injury type and thigh and ankle joint as location were the most common in every season. Contact-related injuries comprised 73.3% on average and were observed to occur more frequently during the last 15 minutes and extra time of match play. The proportion of foul play-related injuries showed a clear declining trend. The proportion of severe injury showed a sporadic increase from 2001 to 2004. The second, fifth, and sixth 15-minute match segments showed a higher IR. Goalkeepers had a lower IR versus other field players. Matches on rainy days resulted in a lower IR than did those held under other weather conditions. Long-term surveillance and statistical feedback of injury characteristics to organization members were considered effective in improving safer play awareness among players and for referees to reduce injury incidence, particularly foul play-related injuries.The American Journal of Sports Medicine 03/2012; 40(5):1006-14. DOI:10.1177/0363546512438695 · 4.70 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: To continue the injury surveillance of FIFA-sponsored football tournaments and report on other medical aspects of the 2006 FIFA World Cup. Prospective epidemiological injury surveillance and descriptive summary of additional medical aspects. Major international football tournament. National team players, doctors and referees at the 2006 FIFA World Cup Germany. Injury type, location and rate. 145 injuries were reported for the 64 matches of the 2006 FIFA World Cup Germany-an overall injury rate of 68.7 per 1000 match hours (95% CI 57.5 to 79.9) or 2.3 injuries per match, in comparison with 2.7 injuries per match in the 2002 FIFA World Cup (p = NS). Physical examinations before participation uncovered no hidden cardiovascular problems. Once the tournament started, no referees were unable to complete their duties. There were no positive doping tests. The injury rate for this World Cup was below that of 2002, but consistent with the overall injury rate per match since data collection began in 1998. There continues to be no evidence of systematic doping in international football.British journal of sports medicine 10/2007; 41(9):578-81; discussion 581. DOI:10.1136/bjsm.2006.034579 · 4.17 Impact Factor