[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This paper gives a detailed description of the use of minor structures on fault planes in various brittle rocks as indicators of the sense of relative movement. The main kinds of structures described involve sets of repeated secondary fractures (striated or not) which intersect the slip plane in a direction roughly perpendicular to the slip direction. Some of the most frequent criteria are new; their reliability is established in the field and by comparison with both previous and new experiments. It is shown that some of the rarer structures probably correspond to neo-rupture in intact rock, most probably at the tip of pre-existing joints, while the most frequent structures are generated by friction on joints, with very little sliding. The possible seismic origin of some structures is discussed.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: An extensive study of the ammonoid fauna occurring in the lagoonal facies of a Middle Triassic isolated carbonate platform (Latemar platform, Dolomites, Italy) has been undertaken, and ammonoids from selected coeval successions (Punta Zonia, Marmolada, Rio Sacuz) have been illustrated. Ammonoids from Latemar have been collected in 20 distinct horizons (storm deposits) within the ca. 500 m thick lagoonal succession of the platform, thus providing a biostratigraphy of a series which is unusually expanded for this time interval, close to the Anisian–Ladinian boundary. Contrary to general opinion, some ammonoids of the Latemar and other coeval carbonate platforms of the Dolomites (Marmolada, Cernera), in particular Aplococeras avisianum, Lecanites misanii, Celtites spp., and Paranevadites sp., are also present in nearby basinal series. The same taxa have been found in North American localities deposited at the opposite margin of Panthalassa. The homotaxis of these ammonoids in North America and Latemar allow to establish a global scale correlation between the Southern Alps and North America with the highest resolution to date possible. In the context of this study, Aplococeras transiens n. sp. and Esinoceras nerinae n. sp are established.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: As a result of a phase of extensional tectonics in the western Tethyan region, a horst and graben topography formed during the Middle Triassic (Ladinian) in northern Italy. Horsts were sites of shallow water carbonate sedimentation, while pelagic and volcaniclastic sediments were deposited in the grabens. Two carbonate platforms approximately 500 m thick can be distinguished in the Marmolada area of the Dolomites: the Marmolada platform proper, which covered an area of 6 km2, and the Costabella platform, which extended for about 12 km in a NW-SE direction and was about 3 km across.The facies of these isolated platforms reflect the influence of storms from the SW. Windward platform margins were characterized by a marine sand belt of skeletal and aggregate grainstones with a dominant platform directed cross-stratification. The central portions of the platforms were occupied by supratidal sand cays which are made up of storm washovers. Leeward parts of the platforms are composed of shallow subtidal sand flat deposits. Laterally discontinuous reefs chiefly composed of various calcareous algae are developed at the outer margins of the platforms. Along windward margins, reefs may form a belt several hundred metres wide; along leeward margins their width is commonly reduced to some tens of metres. Foreslope talus breccias surround the platforms. Clinoform bedding showing basinward dips of 30°-40° is typical of this facies belt, which is approximately 2 km wide. Basinal sediments, only some tens of metres thick, are radiolarian micrites. Abundant sediment-gravity-flow deposits expand the basinal sequence at the toes of windward margins and were probably triggered by storm return flows.Synsedimentary faults striking both NNE-SSW and NW-SE separate the bedded platform limestones from flank deposits and reefs. They account for the stationary nature of the platforms. Neptunian dykes show preferred NNE-SSW and E-W trends. Sinistral displacements are associated with NW-SE trending faults. Depressions in the basins, filled with red, turbiditic pelagic sediments, show N-S trends and are probably compressional in origin. The structural pattern may have resulted from oblique, NW-SE oriented extension of the E-W trending Middle Triassic graben zone of the Dolomites.In the Ladinian of the Dolomites, the stationary platform type can be distinguished from a retrograding type, whereas continuously prograding platforms apparently did not develop.
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