CD74-ROS1 fusion transcripts in resected non-small cell lung carcinoma
Department of Tumor Pathology, Hamamatsu University School of Medicine, Hamamatsu, Shizuoka 431-3192, Japan.Oncology Reports (Impact Factor: 2.3). 07/2013; 30(4). DOI: 10.3892/or.2013.2630
The recent discovery of fusion oncokinases in a subset of non-small cell lung carcinomas (NSCLCs) is of considerable clinical interest, since NSCLCs that express such fusion oncokinases are reportedly sensitive to kinase inhibitors. To better understand the role of recently identified ROS1 and RET fusion oncokinases in pulmonary carcinogenesis, we examined 114 NSCLCs for SLC34A2-ROS1, EZR-ROS1, CD74-ROS1 and KIF5B-RET fusion transcripts using RT-polymerase chain reaction and subsequent sequencing analyses. Although the expression of SLC34A2-ROS1, EZR-ROS1, or KIF5B-RET fusion transcripts was not detected in any of the cases, the expression of CD74-ROS1 fusion transcripts was detected in one (0.9%) of the 114 NSCLCs. The fusion occurred between exon 6 of CD74 and exon 34 of ROS1 and was an in-frame alteration. The mutation was detected in a woman without a history of smoking. Histologically, the carcinoma was an adenocarcinoma with a predominant acinar pattern; notably, a mucinous cribriform pattern and a solid signet-ring cell pattern were also observed in part of the adenocarcinoma. ROS1 protein overexpression was immunohistochemically detected in a cancer-specific manner in both the primary cancer and the lymph node metastatic cancer. No somatic mutations were detected in the mutation cluster regions of the KRAS, EGFR, BRAF and PIK3CA genes and the entire coding region of p53 in the carcinoma, and the expression of ALK fusion was negative. The above results suggest that CD74-ROS1 fusion is involved in the carcinogenesis of a subset of NSCLCs and may contribute to the elucidation of the characteristics of ROS1 fusion-positive NSCLC in the future.
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ABSTRACT: In lung cancer, clinically relevant prognostic information is provided by staging. Staging forms the basis for the treatment options and this is briefly summarized in the introduction. Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and anaplastic lymphoma kinase are biomarkers used for prediction of chemotherapy and prediction of targeted treatment. Other driver biomarkers in lung cancer (point mutations and rearrangements in specific genes including Her2, BRAF, NUT, MET, ROS1, DDR2, FGFR1, KRAS, and PTEN) might potentially provide additional information for clinical decision making. Owing to the low prevalence of mutations in predictive markers, patient numbers in studies are usually small, with the exception of EGFR. These mutations increase our understanding of the biology of lung cancer. Mutation analysis as a basis for treatment choice can have an impressive clinical impact with dramatic responses. However, as yet the impact of these approaches to overall survival is less striking.Archiv für Pathologische Anatomie und Physiologie und für Klinische Medicin 01/2014; 464(3). DOI:10.1007/s00428-014-1535-4 · 2.65 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The recent discovery of mutations and fusions of oncokinase genes in a subset of lung cancers (LCs) is of considerable clinical interest, since LCs containing such mutations or fusion transcripts are reportedly sensitive to kinase inhibitors. To better understand the role of the recently identified fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 (FGFR3) mutations and fusions in pulmonary carcinogenesis, we examined 214 LCs for mutations in the mutation cluster region of the FGFR3 gene using sequencing analysis. We also examined 190 LCs for the FGFR3-TACC3 and FGFR3-BAIAP2L1 fusion transcripts using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis. Although the expression of FGFR3-TACC3 and FGFR3-BAIAP2L1 fusion transcripts was not detected in any of the carcinomas, somatic FGFR3 mutations were detected in two (0.9%) LCs. The two mutations were the same, i.e., p.R248H. That was a novel mutation occurring in the same codon as p.R248C, for which an oncogenic potential has previously been shown. Increased FGFR3 expression was shown in the two LCs containing the FGFR3 p.R248H mutation using qPCR. Histologically, both carcinomas were squamous cell carcinomas, therefore the incidence of the FGFR3 mutation among the squamous cell carcinoma cases was calculated as 3.2% (2/63). When we examined other co-occurring genetic abnormalities, one case exhibited a p53 p.R273C mutation, while the other case exhibited PIK3CA and SOX2 amplifications. The above results suggest that an FGFR3 p.R248H mutation is involved in the carcinogenesis of a subset of LCs and may contribute to the elucidation of the characteristics of FGFR3 mutation-positive LCs in the future.Oncology Reports 01/2014; 31(3). DOI:10.3892/or.2014.2984 · 2.30 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Common cancers may arise from several different mutations, and each causative mutation may require different treatment approaches. There are also several mechanisms by which malignancies may become resistant to therapy, and each mechanism will also require a different therapeutic strategy. Hence, the paradigm of devising therapies based on tumor type is suboptimal. Each common malignancy may now be regarded as a collection of morphologically similar but molecularly distinct orphan diseases, each requiring unique approaches. Current strategies that employ randomized clinical trials (RCTs) in unselected patients carry a high risk of misleading results. Available data suggest that it is reasonable to grant marketing approval for new anticancer agents based solely on high single-agent response rates in small phase I-II studies involving molecularly-defined patient groups where benefit from other therapies is unlikely. This could markedly speed patient access to important therapies while reducing health care costs by slashing drug development costs. Feasible post-approval surveillance procedures could provide ongoing monitoring of drug safety. While assessment of drug combinations would be more complex due to variable contributions of each component, new strategies have been proposed. In addition to savings from more efficient clinical trials methods, it is essential that we also markedly reduce costs of complying with clinical research regulations. Compliance is too cumbersome and expensive, and current regulatory inflexibility markedly slows progress while escalating health care costs. This requires urgent attention. Regulatory approaches intended to enhance safety may instead potentially cost far more life-years than they save by delaying approval of effective therapies.The Canadian journal of clinical pharmacology = Journal canadien de pharmacologie clinique 03/2014; 21(1):e56-65.
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