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Músculo Elevador de la Escápula: Irrigación e Inervación

International Journal of Morphology (Impact Factor: 0.21). 01/2006; 24(3). DOI: 10.4067/S0717-95022006000400012
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    ABSTRACT: No Abstract. Peer Reviewed http://deepblue.lib.umich.edu/bitstream/2027.42/49784/1/1091320302_ftp.pdf
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    ABSTRACT: Understanding the surgical anatomic relationships of the motor nerves to the levator scapulae muscle is imperative for reducing postoperative shoulder dysfunction in patients undergoing neck dissection. To elucidate this relevant anatomy, cervical (C3, C4) and brachial (C5 via dorsal scapular nerve) plexi contributions to the levator scapulae were assessed with respect to posterior triangle landmarks in 37 human cadaveric necks. An average of approximately 2 (actual 1.92) nerves from the cervical plexus (range 1 to 4 nerves) emerged from beneath the posterior border of the sternocleidomastoid muscle in a cephalad to caudad progression to enter the posterior triangle of the neck on their way to innervating the levator scapulae. These cervical plexus contributions exhibited a fairly regular relationship to the emergence of cranial nerve XI and the punctum nervosum along the posterior border of the sternocleidomastoid muscle. After emerging from the posterior border of the sternocleidomastoid to enter the posterior triangle of the neck, cervical plexus contributions to the levator scapulae traveled for a variable distance posteriorly and inferiorly, sometimes branching or coming together. Ultimately these nerves crossed the anterior border of the levator scapulae as 1 to 3 nerves (average 1.94) in a regular superior to inferior progression. The dorsal scapular nerve from the brachial plexus exhibited highly variable anatomic relations in the inferior aspect of the posterior triangle, and was found to penetrate or give branches to the levator scapulae in only 11 of 35 neck specimens. We have found that the levator scapulae receives predictable motor supply from the cervical plexus. Our data elucidate surgical anatomy useful to head and neck surgeons.
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    ABSTRACT: There is a paucity of literature regarding the surgical anatomy of the dorsal scapular nerve (DSN). The aim of this study was to elucidate the relationship of this nerve to surrounding anatomical structures. Ten formalin-fixed human cadavers (20 sides) were dissected, and measurements made between the DSN and related structures. The nerve pierced the middle scalene muscle at a mean distance of 3 cm from its origin from the cervical spine and was more or less centrally located at this exit site. It lay a mean distance of 1.5 cm medial to the vertebral border of the scapula between the serratus posterior superior, posterior scalene, and levator scapulae muscles. It was found to have a mean distance of 2.5 cm medial to the spinal accessory nerve as it traveled on the anterior border of the trapezius muscle. The nerve intertwined the dorsal scapular artery in all specimens and was found along the anterior border of the rhomboid muscles. On 19 sides the DSN originated solely from the C-5 spinal nerve, and on one side it arose from the C-5 and C-6 spinal nerves. Knowledge of the anatomy of the DSN will aid the surgeon who wishes to explore and decompress this structure.
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